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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore tō tātou waka e ū ki uta

Indicators of progression: Planning for practice

The indicators that follow describe the knowledge, skills, and understandings that students should be demonstrating in the Planning for practice component of the technology curriculum.

Indicators are provided for each level of the curriculum and are accompanied by guidance for teachers.

  • See Indicators of progression for more information about the indicators and how they can be used.
  • To learn more about the Planning for practice component, see the key ideas and related resources provided at Planning for practice.

Level one

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Outline a general plan to support the development of an outcome, identifying appropriate steps and resources.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level one teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • provide students with a detailed plan of what they will be doing during their technological practice. This could be presented and explained as a design process the teacher has developed, with key stages that need to happen clearly identified within it
  • provide a range of appropriate resources for students to select those suitable for their use. Teachers should ensure all resources provided are appropriate for use and students should only be responsible for selecting particular materials components, and/or software from these resources.

Indicators

Students can:

  • identify what they will do next
  • identify the particular materials, components and/or software they might use.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Identify what they will do next

Take photos of key stages of a familiar process such as making toast, and get students to organise them in order.

Have students order the photos so that the key stages are in the sequence in which they were undertaken (either for their own practice and/or an observed practice of someone else).

  Have students order photos or digital images so that the resources are in the sequence in which the process/practice took place.

  Have students describe or draw pictures to explain the practice they undertook and the resources they used in this practice.

Flow chart template with broad categories of the steps to go through to produce a technological outcome.

Students to complete a flow chart template describing and drawing each step of the practice that could be undertaken.

Extension: Have some steps missing in the practice and ask students to identify what the step is that is missing and what needs to occur here within the practice.

Think, Pair, Share activity to describe the parts of the process they might go through to develop a technological outcome.

Think individually about the steps in the process – moving around class/group, have each student give an idea and receive one back from someone else in the class/group.

Give One, Get One activity to describe the ‘next’ key stage in the process they need to go through to develop an outcome.

Students take turns in providing the ‘next’ key stage in the process they need to go through to develop an outcome.

Identify the particular materials, components and/or software they might use.

Photos of the resources (materials, components and/or software) and/or samples of the resources students could possibly use to develop an outcome.

Students to:

• select the resources in the order they would use them to develop their outcome

• explain why they have selected them for use in this order.

Flow chart template with the steps identified to produce a technological outcome.

Students complete the template by describing and drawing the resources required to complete each step.

Extension: Have some steps missing in the practice and ask students to identify the missing steps and the resources required to complete the practice.

Identify the resources which are the Odd One Out for developing a technological outcome.

Provide students with a technological outcome and a range of resources. Get them to describe which resources are the odd ones out (ie, those that are not appropriate/needed to develop the technological outcome.

Resource Grouping.

Using pictures of resources, students group them according to the key stages they would follow to undertake their practice to develop an outcome.

Level two

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Develop a plan that identifies the key stages and the resources available.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level two teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • provide students with an overview of the stages they will be working through during their technological practice. This could be presented and explained as a design process the teacher has developed, and it could be used to support students to identify what the key stages are
  • provide a range of appropriate resources and guide students to decide which particular materials components, and/or software will be required for each key stage Teachers should ensure all resources provided are appropriate for use.

Indicators

Students can:

  • identify key stages required to produce an outcome
  • identify the particular materials, components and/or software required for each key stage.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Identify key stages required to produce an outcome

Game Play – “What comes next?”

Give students a set of photographs of a sequence of steps undertaken to develop a technological outcome, with steps missing at the end. Students to suggest either next possible step and/or what the finished outcome would/could be. Repeat the activity but with a key step(s) missing in the middle of the sequence and have students determine what the missing key step is.

Record answers on a template and peer critique using a bank of guided questions.

Use a range of known and unknown technological products so that students can explain them:

• from their experience in interacting with them

• through ‘predicting’ what they are used for, where they are used, and who uses them,

• through the steps undertaken to make them, etc. Use a template with stems for students to complete 

For example….

Outcomes are:

• used to .... This will .......

• used by .... to ........

• made by ....... using

• made using the following steps .... ..

Buddy chat – in pairs, students describe what they have done to-date and what needs to be done next.

Encourage students to listen and ask questions such as:

• Why did you do this?

• How did it help you?

• What will you do next?

• What resources will you need?

Identify the particular materials, components and/or software required for each key stage

Students complete a template to record from a bank of resources (pictures and/ or actual resources) those that they think they will need for each key stage to produce a technological outcome to meet required attributes.

Provide a range of pictures of and/or actual resources for students to see and interact with. Have them determine the resources they will need at each key stage.

Flow chart template with the key stages identified to produce a technological outcome.

Students complete the template by describing and drawing the resources required to complete each key stage.

Extension: Have some key stages missing in the practice and ask students to identify what the stage is that is missing and the resources that are required to complete it.

Level three

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Undertake planning to identify the key stages and resources required to develop an outcome. Revisit planning to include reviews of progress and identify implications for subsequent decision making.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level three teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • provide students with an overview of what they will need to do during their technological practice and guide students to identify key stages and place these on a timeline of some sort
  • provide resources including a range of appropriate materials, components, software, hardware, equipment, and/ or tools for students to select from and guide students to select those that will be suitable for their outcome
  • guide students to reflect on progress to make informed decisions regarding next steps.

Indicators

Students can:

  • identify key stages, and resources required, and record when each stage will need to be completed to make sure an outcome is completed
  • explain progress to date in terms of meeting key stages and use of resources, and discuss implications for what they need to do next.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Identify key stages, and resources required, 

Identify key stages in someone else’s technological practice.

Provide students with a description (video, photos and/or incomplete flow chart) of the key stages of technological practice used to develop a technological outcome. 

Students to:

• identify the key stages and sequence that occurred (video)

• order these into the sequence that would enable the technological outcome to be developed (photos)

• identify the next key stages to complete the technological outcome (incomplete flow chart)

Students explain the consequences if a particular key stage was not undertaken within the practice used to develop the technological outcome and/or if a resource was not used. Buddy chat – students talk/discuss in pairs.

Students create a flowchart of the key stages and the resources required at each stage of their own technological practice and/or that of someone else.

The teacher creates the initial flowchart identifying some of the key stages and resources required, leaving space for students to add further stages and resources as they plan to undertake their own technological practice and/or to enable someone else’s practice to be completed.

Review photos of other student’s previous technological practice and identify the key stages they followed.

Identify the resources that were used and record these on blank cards beside the appropriate photos. Sequence the photos and resources in the order that they would have occurred within technological practice. Note: this can be used as a class planning tool that is placed on the wall to inform students in their own undertaking of technological practice.

...and record when each stage will need to be completed to make sure an outcome is completed

Students to complete a ‘key stages’ timeline for the technological practice they undertook to develop a previous technological outcome.

Alongside this timeline record the practice they intend to follow to develop their next technological outcome.

Students in pairs use dice with questions to identify what they need to consider.

Use teacher-created dice with questions that are specific to the teaching programme or get students to create their own questions for each other.

Example questions:

• What key stages have I done so far?

• What key stages do I still need to do?

• How have my key stages changed?

• How can I manage my time better?

• What changes have I made to my outcome / planning?

• What resources have I used so far?

• What resources will I need next?

• How can I manage my resources better?

• People resources; Who can help me?

Level four

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Undertake planning that includes reviewing the effectiveness of past actions and resourcing, exploring implications for future actions and accessing of resources, and consideration of stakeholder feedback, to enable the development of an outcome.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level four teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • provide resources including a range of appropriate stakeholders, materials, components, software, hardware, equipment, and/or tools for students to select from and support students to select those that will be suitable for their outcome
  • provide planning tools and support students to use these to record key stages and resources needed, including when they will need to access stakeholder feedback, and to (Please note; records only need to capture what students plan to do and what they need to do it to guide their practice and allow them to review this regularly)
  • support students to identify regular review points and to review their progress at these points
  • guide students to manage time and organise their selected resources .based on regular reviews of progress

Indicators

Students can:

  • use planning tools to manage time, identify and record key stages, associated resources, and actions to be undertaken, with progress review points clearly indicated
  • review progress at set review points, and revise time management as appropriate to ensure completion of an outcome.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Use planning tools to manage time, identify and record key stages, associated resources, and actions to be undertaken, with progress review points clearly indicated

In groups students revisit a previous planning tool they have used and discuss the usefulness of this tool as a means of

recording and informing the practice that was undertaken.

Encourage students to reflect on such things as the actual time it took to complete each key stage of the practice, how useful the planning was in informing the next stage of practice etc.

Look at a selection of planning tools used by others (senior students) to see the similarities and differences between them.

Students to identify:

• the similarities and differences between the planning tools used,

• where within the practice they were used

• how the planning tool(s) were used to inform the practice undertaken.

Then have a class discussion on the most appropriate planning tools for different aspects of current practice.

Focus discussion on identifying those tools most suitable for:

• initial planning of intended key stages,

• planning for resource management and activities within identified key stages

• planning for outcome testing and evaluation etc.

Strategies for gaining quality stakeholder feedback.

Review the practice of others (senior students and/or practicing technologists) to identify the planning strategies/tools that were used to obtain stakeholder feedback. Analyse these to identify if they allowed quality feedback to be received.

Review progress at set review points, 

Use planning tool(s) to plan overall practice and structure key stages, base this planning on knowledge gained from undertaking previous planning actions.

Students are encouraged to reflect on the tools that worked well and those that didn't from their previous planning practice. Students use understandings gained to inform selection of planning tools for next practice.

Analyse the practice of others to identify

how they planned ahead, including how they managed time and documented their practice.

Use case studies of previous students practice and/or the practices of practicing technologists.

Teacher questions students/groups about the list of resources they have identified as needing in order to undertake technological practice to develop a technological outcome, the next set of key stages and how time will be managed.

Question students/groups about their identified resources in terms of:

• when (what stage of their practice) they will require the resource(s )

• if they have the appropriate level of knowledge and skill to use the resource and if not how they will access it

• if the resource identified is the most appropriate to complete this key stage of their practice

• what will happen to the resources once the key stage is finished, etc.

• how much time is required to complete a stage

• implications of time taken to complete a stage in the overall management of the time allowed to develop the technological outcome.

and revise time management as appropriate to ensure completion of an outcome.

Group discussion to consider and agree on best strategy(ies) for obtaining stakeholder feedback and most appropriate tool(s) for analysing this feedback.

Students present to group/class the strategy(ies) they are considering using to obtain stakeholder feedback. Discussion should focus on the merits of the strategy, identifying likely responses and therefore the appropriate tool for analysing the feedback.

Students to sequence photos of someone else’s (senior students and/or a practicing technologists) technological practice that was undertaken to develop a technological outcome.

Note: Each photo represents a key stage in the development of the technological outcome.

Beside each photo students to identify the:

• resources that where necessary to enable the stage to be completed

• aspects that needed management; for example, safety, storage, resources requiring handling in a specific way, disposal of waste etc.

• likely time required to complete each stage

• likely overall time taken to complete the technological outcome.

Level five

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Analyse their own and others’ planning practices to inform the selection and use of planning tools. Use these to support and justify planning decisions (including those relating to the management of resources) that will see the development of an outcome through to completion.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level five teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • provide a range of planning tools and support students to analyse these to inform selection of the tools they will use to manage and efficiently record their planning
  • support students to review and evaluate progress to inform their ongoing planning decisions
  • guide students to ensure appropriate resources are available (stakeholder/s, materials, components, software, equipment, tools and/or hardware) suitable for their outcome
  • support students to manage time and resources, including stakeholders interactions.

Indicators

Students can:

  • analyse own and others use of planning tools to inform the selection of tools best suited for their use to plan and monitor progress and record key decisions
  • use planning tools to identify and record key stages, and manage time and resources (including stakeholder interactions) to ensure completion of an outcome
  • use planning tools to record key planning decisions regarding the management of time, resources and stakeholder interactions.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation

Analyse own and others use of planning tools to inform the selection of

tools best suited for their use

Revisit a previous planning tool students have used and discuss the usefulness of this tool to record the practice undertaken.

Students reflect on such things as the actual time taken to complete each key stage of the practice, how useful the planning was in informing the next stage etc.

Look at a professional technologists practice to identify the planning tools they used (may have used).

Using an existing a product and known technologists practice (where available) explain (predict):

• What planning tools were used?

• What were their key stages?

• What actions did they undertake at each of the key stages?

• How did they review their progress?

• What informed changes to their planning?

• How did they identify their resources and then manage them? Fun examples...

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Analyse a selection of planning tools used by others (senior students and/ or practicing technologists) to see the consistencies and differences between them.

Students to identify:

• similarities and differences between the planning tools used

• where within the practice they were used

• how the tool(s) were used to inform the practice undertaken.

 ....to plan and monitor progress and record key decisions.

In pairs or groups, using a new and unrelated brief, each pair/group has a different planning tool.

Discuss and justify, within the context of the specific brief:

• Will the planning tool allow the brief to be addressed (issue resolved)?

• Why/why not?

• What modifications that could be made to the planning tool to enable the brief to be addressed

When complete, ask the rest of class to critique their justifications.

Progress review points/managing resources trials.

Split class into groups, all groups to create an outcome (such as origami) using technological practice within one lesson. 

Some groups have insufficient resources/time/people.

Group A has only one final review point. Group B has maybe two progress review points. Group C has several progress review points. Some progress review points that they have are however purposefully placed in the wrong places.

Students discuss and reflect on the outcomes achieved by each group and what assisted/hindered the attaining a quality outcome.

Use planning tools to identify and record key stages...

Discussion on the most appropriate planning tool for different aspects of practice.

Class discusses the most appropriate planning tools for different aspects of practice. For example – What planning tools are most suitable for:

• initially planning intended key stages?

• planning for resource management?

• planning for activities within an identified key stage etc?

• materials flows?

Teacher-led example of how to use planning tools to plan overall practice, structure key stages, and manage time and resources.

Base this planning on knowledge gained from undertaking previous planning actions.

Encourage students to reflect on and discuss what worked well and what didn’t for their previous planning practice. Encourage students to use ‘linking words in their discussions such as:

• ...because...

• ....and therefore .....

Use understandings developed from this activity to inform next planning.

...and manage time and resources (including stakeholder interactions) to ensure completion of an outcome

Oral justification.

Student(s) explain to the rest of the class why they are using the planning tools they are (suggest one student per session). Explain such things as:

• why they selected the planning tool(s)? Advantages/Disadvantages they have found in using them

• how the planning tool assists them in justifying the decisions they made

• how the planning tool enabled them to manage time and resources effectively/efficiently.

Encourage other students to question the presenting student in order to find out about different tools used.

Photos of different stages of the development of a technological outcome compared to available planning tools.

Provide students with a selection of photos of different stages of the development of a technological outcome. For example stages could be: mixing and blending of ingredients for a muffin, identifying type/style of garment suitable to be worn at an identified special event.

Also supply them with a range of planning tools.

Have students match the outcome/stage onto an appropriate planning tool and justify their choice. Teacher questioning will ensure deeper thinking through using Three-storey intellect or Blooms Taxonomies.

Create dice with focus questions.

Students create the questions that will focus them and others to ensure their justifications are appropriate, by referring to statements such as:

• Planning decisions made ...

• Planning tools selected ...

• Planning tools dismissed ...

• Time taken to complete ...

• Resources used to complete ....

• Altered practice chosen ...

• Modifications to outcome ...

The dice can then be used when planning to encourage students to reflect on their planning decisions

Use planning tools to record key planning decisions regarding the management of time, resources and stakeholder interactions

Teacher questions students about the list of resources they will need to organise in order to undertake technological practice to develop an outcome and the time it will take to complete each key stage.

Question students about such things as:

• What are the key stages required to develop their outcome?

• The appropriateness of the identified resources for each key stage.

• How will they manage the resources during their practice to maximise efficiency of practice and achieve the desired outcome

• When will they need to access the resource(s) for each stage

• What will happen to the resource(s) once the key stage is finished, etc?

• What time has been allowed for each key stage?

Photos of different stages of the development of a technological outcome.

Provide students with a selection of photos of different stages of the development of a technological outcome. For example stages could be: mixing and blending of ingredients for a muffin, identifying type/style of garment suitable to be worn at an identified special event.

Also supply them with a range of planning tools.

Have students match the outcome/stage onto an appropriate planning tool and record time allowed, resources and stakeholder interactions that would need to occur to complete each stage.

Level six

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Critically analyse their own and others’ past and current planning practices in order to make informed selection and effective use of planning tools. Use these to support and justify ongoing planning that will see the development of an outcome through to completion.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level six teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • support students to critically analyse a range of planning tools that have been used in past practice
  • support students to select planning tools that will provide appropriate support for their practice and efficient recording of why key planning decisions were made
  • support students to ensure appropriate resources are available (stakeholder/s, materials, components, software, equipment, tools and/or hardware) suitable for their outcome
  • support students to use selected tools to manage resources to ensure completion of an outcome.

Indicators

Students can:

  • critically analyse own and others use of planning tools to inform the selection of planning tools best suited for their use to plan and monitor progress and record reasons for planning decisions
  • use planning tools to establish and review key stages, identify and manage all resources, and to determine and guide actions to ensure completion of an outcome
  • use planning tools to record initial plans and ongoing revisions in ways which provide reasons for planning decisions made.

Strategies for engaging students

Level seven

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Critically analyse their own and others’ past and current planning and management practices in order to develop and employ project management practices that will ensure the effective development of an outcome to completion.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level seven teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • support students to critically analyse a range of planning tools and project management practices that have been used in past technological practice
  • support students to select and use planning tools to make effective planning decisions and establish and manage all resources (including time, money, stakeholder/s, materials, components, software, equipment, tools and/or hardware etc). Effective planning decisions enable the outcome produced to successfully meet the brief.
  • support students to select and use planning tools which will allow for the efficient recording of justifications for key planning decisions made.
  • support students to ensure appropriate resources are available (stakeholder/s, materials, components, software, equipment, tools and/or hardware) suitable for their outcome.

Indicators

Students can:

  • critically analyse existing planning tools and project management practices to inform the selection of planning tools appropriate for the technological practice to be undertaken, and for recording evidence to support any revisions to planning
  • use planning tools to set achievable goals, manage all resources, plan critical review points, and revise goal and resources as necessary to ensure the effective completion of an outcome
  • use planning tools to provide evidence for any revisions made at critical review points and justifies the appropriateness of planning tools used.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Critically analyse existing planning tools and project management practices to inform the selection of planning tools appropriate for the technological practice to be undertaken, and for recording evidence to support any revisions to planning

Critically analyse others (practicing technologist and/or student) project management practices through evaluation of case studies and/or their actual practice as observed/presented.

Critically evaluate the practice of others focusing on such things as:

• the planning and project management tools they used

• the planning they undertook to enable the fitness for purpose of the outcome developed to be verified

• the management practices they used to ensure valid stakeholder feedback was accessed

• the planning tools they used to manage the efficient use of resources

Include in this critical analysis a comparison with the student’s own practice

Flowchart a practicing technologist’s or other students past planning practice and critically analyse it to inform own planning practice.

Flow chart showing...

• What the analysis of a technologists planning practice told them

• Implications/findings/what I learnt

• How I will/did use understandings gained from this analysis to inform my own planning practice.

Develop planning practices...

Use roles in group situations – either the real project or a simulated one-off.

Each student has a different role, such as: project manager; resource manager;

time keeper; researcher; construction manager.

Answer questions such as:

• What personal qualities does each role require?

• How successful was each student in fulfilling their role?

• What part does each role play in the overall success of the technological practice undertaken?

Have students reflect on how these roles are accounted for/undertaken in their own planning practice, when developing technological outcomes?

Use planning tools to set achievable goals, manage all resources, plan critical review points, and revise goal and resources as necessary to ensure the effective completion of an outcome

Look at the use of planning tools and determine the likely accuracy/validity of projections made based on findings obtained from them.

Focus on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each planning tool in terms of allowing accurate and valid projections to future practice required to be made.

Use of physical and virtual planning tools, and project management practices.

Focus on encouraging students to project and substantiate their judgments about the success or otherwise of the expected outcome(s) when they are placed in their intended physical and social environment, using physical and/or virtual planning tools.

Use planning tools to provide evidence for any revisions made at critical review points and justifies the appropriateness of planning tools used.

Explore the use of a range of evaluative tools.

Evaluation tools could include: PMI; CAMPER (consequences, actions, minify /

modify/magnify, put into another use, eliminate, reverse); SWOT/SWOB analysis;

‘What if…’ questions; Ryan’s Thinkers Keys; evaluating dice with key questions; Question Box – with key questions (colour code for different levels) see Blooms Taxonomy.

Literacy development – using linking words to provide justifications.

Encourage students to use linking language such as:

• as a result of

• because

• therefore .....

Refer to Effective Literacy Strategies book for Secondary Schools for further examples.

Justifying the management of resources in terms of the physical and social environment in which they are used.

Students critically evaluate:

• the practice of others (case study and/or observation of a practicing

technologists practice) to determine how well they managed resources within the physical and environmental location in which they used. – if their management practices made an impact on the sustainability of the resources used and the outcome itself

• their own past practice to determine how well they managed the resources within the physical and environmental location in which they used.

Level eight

Achievement objective 

Students will:

Critically analyse their own and others’ past and current planning and management practices in order to develop and employ project management practices that will ensure the efficient development of an outcome to completion.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake planning for practice at level eight teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief against which planning to develop an outcome can occur
  • support students to critically analyse a range of project management practices and explore how project scheduling is used to manage technological practice
  • support students to establish and implement a coherent project schedule that allows for the coordination and management of the: regular review of goals, planning tools, all resources required (time, money, stakeholder/s, materials, components, software, equipment, tools and/or hardware etc) and review points
  • support students to provide evidence of effective and efficient planning decisions. Effective and efficient planning decisions ensures that the use of resources is optimised during the development and production of an outcome produced to successfully meet the brief.

Indicators

Students can:

  • establish a coherent project schedule suitable for the physical and social environment where the outcome is to be developed and implemented, informed by critical analysis of existing project management
  • implement project schedule, undertaking reflection at critical review points to revise or confirm schedule to ensure the effective and efficient completion of an outcome
  • manage the project to provide evidence of the coordination of goals, planning tools, resources and progress review points and justify planning decisions.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicator Teaching Strategy & explanation
Establish a coherent project schedule suitable for the physical and social environment where the outcome is to be developed and implemented, informed by critical analysis of existing project management

Project schedules suitable for determining a suitable context and issue, and establishing the practice to

be undertaken to develop a resulting technological outcome.

Explore the potential project schedule using:

• mind mapping tools

• graphic organisers

• compare and contrast.

Focus on answering questions such as:

• Is the project schedule likely to enable a technological outcome to be developed that is fit for purpose for the physical and social environment in which it will be placed?

• What constraints (political, social, moral, ethical, economic) will likely impact on the technological practice undertaken to develop a technological outcome, and the outcomes themselves?

• Is the project schedule informed by critical analysis of existing project management?

Explore unsuccessful products and the project management practices (or lack of!!!) used to develop them

Focus on identifying the planning practice(s) that were missing

What project management practices were incomplete:

Risk management

• Planning tools chosen

• Review points – When? How?

• When could they have identified that the outcome was becoming unfit for purpose?

• What constraints were identified/ not identified?

• How could constraints have been considered?

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Implement project schedule, undertaking reflection at critical review points to revise or confirm schedule to ensure the effective and efficient completion of an outcome

What is meant by efficient and effective?

Define efficient and effective.

What does efficiency and effectiveness look like in technology?

How does the need for these two things (efficient and effective) affect project management?

Evaluate efficiency and effectiveness in a practicing technologists practice - compare and contrast the fitness for purpose of the technological outcome(s) they produced with the resources (including time, waste, use of stakeholder feedback etc) they use.

  • Efficiency Competition to model what efficiency is.

Students in groups, each group has the same resources, time and instructions etc to create a one-off product. Students plan before the task what they could do to ensure efficiency (for example, use minimum resources/use mock-ups and patterns to ensure efficient use of materials).

Evaluate the success of planning practice against the quality of the one-off product they create (its fitness for purpose).

  • Effective Competition to model what effectiveness is.

Students in groups, each group has the same resources, time and instructions etc to create a one-off product. Students plan before the task what they could do to ensure effectiveness (for example how effective the product operates/functions).

Evaluate the success of planning practice against the quality of the one-off product they create (its fitness for purpose).

Students are aware of the integrative nature of planning for practice and project management.

Students are encouraged to critically evaluate their planning practices to determine their effectiveness in informing next steps. This evaluation should focus on answering questions such as:

• Is the planning and management tools supporting informed projections as to where to next?

• What information is missing to allow informed projections?

• Is there a better means of/tool for planning and managing that would allow a more efficient use of resources and better projections to occur?

Manage the project to provide evidence of the coordination of goals, planning tools, resources

and progress review points and justify planning decisions.

Strategies for future projection – use of creative thinking strategies.

Examples include:

• ‘What if…’ questions

• De Bono

• inquiry learning strategies

• organisations of think tanks

• Secondary Futures resource.

Critically evaluate others (practicing technologist) project management practices through analysis of case studies and/or their actual practice undertaken as observed/presented.

Critically evaluate the practice of others focusing on such things as:

• the management tools used

• the opportunities created and/or constraints that resulted due to specific practices having been undertaken

• management of resources and how/if this was undertaken in an ongoing manner through-out the technological practice which was undertaken

• justifications provided for the planning and management practices adopted in terms of the physical and social environment in which the practice took place

• how they ensured that their technological practice was always focused on addressing the context and issue.

Indicators of Progression – Planning for practice (Word 2007, 121 KB)

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by strand) – pdf file, 340kb

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by level) – pdf file, 319kb

Progression diagram – Planning for practice (PDF, 164 KB)

Acknowledgment

The indicators of progression for the components of the Technological Practice strand were developed by Dr Vicki Compton and Cliff Harwood (2010).

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