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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore to tātou waka e ū ki uta

Indicators of progression: Outcome development and evaluation

The indicators that follow describe the knowledge, skills, and understandings that students should be demonstrating in the Outcome development and evaluation component of the technology curriculum.

Indicators are provided for each level of the curriculum and are accompanied by guidance for teachers.

Level one

Achievement objective

Students will:

Investigate a context to communicate potential outcomes. Evaluate these against attributes; select and develop an outcome in keeping with the identified attributes.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level one teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with attributes against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that encourages and supports student innovation when generating design ideas
  • provide opportunities to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and using manipulative media such as modelling clay, wire, card etc
  • provide opportunities to develop skills required to produce their outcome.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe potential outcomes, through drawing, models and/or verbally
  • identify potential outcomes that are in keeping with the attributes and select one to produce
  • produce an outcome in keeping with identified attributes.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & Explanation
Describe potential outcomes, through drawing, models and/or verbally

Directed conversations about possible design ideas.

Teacher provides questions for students to guide discussions when developing a potential outcome(s). For example:

• What sort of materials do you think you could use to make a ……..?

• How do you think you’d join the different bits of your …………. together?

Drawing objects to show design features.

Students draw everyday objects without worrying too much about their artistic value. Concentrate students on depicting design features – such as labeling parts and indicating materials and possibly some overall measurement of these objects. Encourage use of no erasers in the first instance – if students want to change something they have drawn then get them to use another colour.

Introduce the language of outcomes (mock up, model, prototype etc).

Common terminology – graphic and written description. Use strategies such as:

• PSSD (Purposeful silent sustained drawing/design) and labeling.

• Progressive Dictionary (as a class tool)

I Have / Who Has card game 

Identify potential outcomes that are in keeping with the

attributes and selects one to produce

Give students a brief and a selection of possible products that may or may not meet the brief.

Explore the products to determine if they meet the brief. Describe what needs to be changed to allow the product to meet the brief.

We (the students in this class) need something to put felts and pencils in at school. It needs to be.... (attributes relevant to students).

Discuss what would make the product suitable for holding the felts and pencils. Provide students with examples of possibly products that would resolve the need as explore if they would be suitable for putting felts and pencils into at school, such as:

• an overnight bag

• a plastic bag

• a sunglasses case

• a pencil case – metal and fabric

• a drinking glass.

Describing existing products.

Give students a range of existing products and ask them to describe what they do (their proper function).

Produce an outcome in keeping with identified attributes.

Record in a template the process students go through to develop their outcome.

Encourage students to describe each stage of the process and discuss whether it allowed the outcome to meet the identified attributes.

Level two

Achievement objective

Students will:

Investigate a context to develop potential outcomes. Evaluate these against identified attributes; select and develop an outcome. Evaluate the outcome in terms of the need/opportunity.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level two teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with attributes against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that encourages and supports student innovation when generating design ideas
  • provide opportunities to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and using manipulative media such as modelling clay, wire, card etc
  • provide opportunities to develop skills required to produce their outcome
  • guide students to evaluate their outcome against the brief.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe potential outcomes, through drawing, models and/or verbally
  • evaluate potential outcomes in terms of identified attributes to select the outcome to produce
  • produce an outcome in keeping with the brief
  • evaluate the final outcome in terms of how successfully it addresses the brief.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Describe potential outcomes, through drawing, models and/or verbally

Describe conceptual ideas graphically using 2D and 3D drawings, verbally, through modelling media,such as plasticine, clay, paper, corflute, kitchen boxes/tubes or other modelling materials.

Provide isometric paper to assist students to draw in 3D. Encourage students to use a range of media/modes to model/describe potential outcomes.

Evaluate potential outcomes in terms of identified attributes to select the outcome to produce

Evaluate a range of potential outcomes against a brief.

Use a template with four columns for:

• a picture of the potential outcome;

• labeled attributes;

• labeled met/not met;

• why it meets/does not meet the attributes.

Evaluate a range of given potential outcomes (someone else’s) against given attributes to identify which ones provide the greatest opportunity to be developed into an outcome that is fit for purpose.

Use several outcomes designed for a given brief and slightly change the brief. Ask students which of the outcomes best meets the new brief and why.

For example: Students make scones. At end of the lesson, discuss with them how the scones attributes may need to change if the person eating these were: diabetic; obese; their grandparents.

 • Develop a rubric to evaluate models or conceptual ideas for potential outcomes against attributes.

 • Choose a context that is well known to students and have them describe attributes of an outcome that would work   within the context.

 • Choose a context such as: carrying school equipment to school, portable seat. Ask students to describe a potential outcome that would meet their determined attributes

 • Compare a range of different outcomes to determine which best offers the potential to be fit for purpose.

 • Use a PMI chart to record evaluations and assist in identifying which offers the best potential to be developed into an outcome that is fit for purpose.

Produce an outcome in keeping with the brief

Use local and authentic Technological Challenges to develop understandings about required attributes.

Use these Technology Challenges as the context for producing a quick outcome that needs to meet a desired set of attributes. Reinforce, however, to students that these are isolated activities and are not technology in its entirety, and do not necessarily follow a good technological practice model.

Note: this activity can also provide a link with aspects associated with technological modelling – particularly the construction skills aligned to developing physical models and mockups for testing design ideas and conceptual designs.

Evaluate the final outcome in terms of how successfully it addresses the brief.

Dragons Den type round robin discussion. Use a class brief and ask students to talk about how their outcome meets the attributes defined in the brief.

Students present their final outcome and describe how it addresses the brief. The rest of the class (or a selected group of evaluators from the class) provide feedback as to whether they feel the presented outcome meets the attributes identified as necessary in a final outcome.

Evaluate a range of final outcomes (students or someone else’s) against known attributes to identify those outcomes that are fit for purpose.

Use several outcomes designed for a given brief. Use a PMI chart to record evaluations and determine those that are fit for purpose.

Describing the attributes of a potential final outcome that addresses a known need.

Choose a context that is well known to students and have them describe attributes for an outcome that addresses a known need, such as carrying school equipment to school, a portable seat for watching sports etc.

Level three

Achievement objective

Students will:

Investigate a context to develop ideas for potential outcomes. Trial and evaluate these against key attributes to select and develop an outcome to address the need or opportunity. Evaluate this outcome against the key attributes and how it addresses the need or opportunity.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level three teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with attributes against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that encourages and supports student innovation when generating design ideas
  • provide opportunities to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and using manipulative media such as modelling clay, wire, card etc
  • provide opportunity to develop knowledge and skills related to the performance properties of the materials/components students could use
  • support students to evaluate their outcome against the brief.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe design ideas (either through drawing, models and/or verbally) for potential outcomes
  • evaluate design ideas in terms of key attributes to develop a conceptual design for the outcome
  • select materials/components, based on their performance properties, for use in the production of the outcome
  • produce an outcome that addresses the brief
  • evaluate the final outcome against the key
  • attributes to determine how well it met the need or opportunity.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Describe design ideas (either through drawing, models and/or verbally) for potential outcomes

Use the Student Showcase or Case Studies on the Technology Online website to illustrate different ways in which other students have described design ideas.

Undertake a comparative analysis to identify any differences and determine the ways that effectively communicate and that are not so effective in communicating design ideas.

Model design ideas using sketches, mockups/

models.

Focus placed on developing student understandings and skills in using different communication techniques to describe a design idea.

Evaluate design ideas in terms of key attributes

to develop a conceptual design for the outcome

Use photographs and/or mock-ups of a range of design ideas.

Students analyse these against a set of given key attributes to determine if the design ideas have the potential to address the need/opportunity.

If changes are necessary, students suggest what these might be.

Provide students with opportunities to sketch and mockup design ideas – evaluate these against known key attributes to determine if the ideas have the potential to be developed into a conceptual design that addresses a brief.

Focus learning not just on developing student sketching and mockup skills and techniques, but also on enhancing the quality of the tests they carry out to determine the potential of the design idea.

Provide a selection of technological models/ mockups of varies design ideas for a technological outcome – have students test these against known key attributes to determine if the ideas have the potential to be developed into a conceptual design that addresses a brief.

Provide students with a variety of 2D and 3D mockups, graphical representations of design ideas with descriptions, virtual models, and descriptions only of design ideas.

Select materials/ components, based on their performance

properties, for use in the production of the outcome

Students test materials to determine their suitability for use in a specific context.

Provide a picture of a technological outcome and a description of the performance and aesthetic requirements of the outcome when used in its intended environment. Give students a range of materials that could be used for a specific part(s) of the outcome and have them determine their suitability for use based on their performance and aesthetic qualities.

Use the same technological outcome but change the environment in which it is now to be used (for example, now used in and around sea water) – have students determine what the performance and aesthetic qualities of the material(s) used to make the outcome due to this change in environment. Identify what materials would meet these needs.

Provide a picture of an outcome (product) and a description of its required performance and aesthetic requirements. Give students a range of materials that could be used for a specific part(s) of the outcome and have them determine and justify their suitability for use based on the materials performance and aesthetic qualities.

Use the same outcomes but change the environment in which it is now to be used (for example, now used in and around sea water) – have students determine and justify what the performance and aesthetic qualities of the material(s) required to make the outcome fit for purpose in the new environment. Identify what materials would provide these qualities.

Produce an outcome that addresses the brief

Analyse the technological practice undertaken by others when developing an outcome to identify

if the outcome effectively addresses the need or opportunity.

Use case studies or portfolios of other students work – preferably from older students. Focus student attention on how the technologist determined that their outcome addressed the brief.

Evaluate the final outcome against the key attributes to determine how well it met the need or opportunity

Student group evaluation of existing outcome(s) against the key attributes they were developed to meet.

Provide students with a range of existing outcomes and the briefs that they were developed to address

– have students evaluate them to determine if they address the intended need or opportunity.

Student peer evaluation of their developed outcome(s) against the key attributes they were developed to meet.

Students evaluate each other’s developed outcomes against the brief that they were developed to address.

Level four

Achievement objective

Students will:

Investigate a context to develop ideas for feasible outcomes. Undertake functional modelling that takes account of stakeholder feedback, in order to select and develop the outcome that best addresses the key attributes. Incorporating stakeholder feedback, evaluate the outcome’s fitness for purpose in terms of how well it addresses the need or opportunity.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level four teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with attributes against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that encourages and supports student innovation when generating design ideas
  • provide opportunities to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • provide a range of materials/components and support students to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to test and use them
  • guide students to evaluate outcomes in situ against key attributes.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe design ideas (either through drawing, models and/or verbally) or potential outcomes
  • undertake functional modelling to develop design ideas into a conceptual design that addresses the key attributes
  • test the key performance properties of materials/ components to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome
  • produce and trial a prototype of the outcome
  • evaluate the fitness for purpose of the final outcome against the key attributes.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Describe design ideas (either through drawing, models and/or verbally) or potential outcomes

Teach a range of techniques related to communicating design ideas i.e. drawing, context specific vocabulary and modelling skills etc

Focus on techniques such as:

• Rapid Viz, creating 2D/3D

Necker Cubes 

• the use of annotations to explain drawings

• graphics techniques (Technology student website – graphics).

Techniques broken down into those used for:

• design idea generation (research tools, concept screening tools, etc)

• testing design ideas to determine their potential to be fit for purpose 

mockup and modelling techniques

Undertake functional modelling to develop design ideas into a conceptual design that addresses the key attributes

Analyse past students’ best practice and or teacher resources of ‘best’ practice in developing design ideas into a conceptual design including:

• the functional modelling undertaken to test the potential fitness for purpose

of design ideas

• identifying how selected materials were determined as suitable,

• how materials were sourced.

Use portfolios of previous student’s practice, student mentoring and/or Case studies. Provide a range of existing design ideas and developed conceptual designs for students to analyse Videos or DVDs that show modelling in practice, for example:

• Google: product design modelling videos

Technology student website - modelling

Test the key performance properties of materials/components to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome

Develop students’ domain specific skills in testing materials.

Conduct a series of skill related activities that focus on enhancing student knowledge of how materials can be worked and tested to determine their performance properties and therefore their suitability for inclusion in an outcome.

Explore limitations of the performance properties of material/components.

Conduct controlled tests of materials/components against criteria to find their physical limits ( ie point of failure/what situations they are suited for and those that they are not) Use worksheets with focused questions. View videos that demonstrate the applications of materials such as:

Testing a circuit board clip

Beijing Water cube Megastructure

Analyse past students practice to identify how they ensured that their outcome would meet the key attributes identified as important to address the need or opportunity.

Use portfolios of previous students practice and/or Case studies 

Produce and trial a prototype of the outcome

Analyse past students practice in using prototypes to test, evaluate and determine an outcomes fitness for purpose.

Use portfolios of previous students practice and/or Case studies 

Develop a set of questions that focus on determining a prototype's fitness for purpose in addressing the brief. Use these to determine if a prototype is fit for purpose.

Develop skill, knowledge & thinking during the manufacturing of prototypes.

Rapid prototyping - see YouTube clip on disruptive thinking & Rapid Prototyping

Use a series of photographs that demonstrate the production stages that were undertaken that led to a prototype.

Analyse photographs to determine the techniques used to produce the prototype and the trialing processes that may have taken place to determine its fitness for purpose.

Evaluate the fitness for purpose of the final outcome against the key attributes

Enhance student strategies for seeking and analysing stakeholder feedback.

Identify advantages and limitations of different strategies for gaining stakeholder feedback including when best to use them.

Strategies could include such things as:

• open-question surveys, closed-question surveys – email, phone or hard copy

• face-to-face structured, semi-structured or unstructured interviews

• sensory testing techniques eg. hedonic scale. See Food Processing Center: Sensory Lab 

Students evaluate the classes developed outcomes against the attributes they were developed to meet.

Have students evaluate each other’s outcomes to determine if they address the intended need or opportunity. Each student has three post-it notes that they can make one comment on and attach it to the students work

Students evaluate an outcome (developed by others) against the attributes it was developed to meet

Provide students with a range of existing outcomes and the briefs that they were developed to address.

Dragons Den type round robin discussion. See Dragon's Den & Middle Schools Learners Video

Use a group brief and ask students to talk about how an outcome met the attributes described in the brief.

Explore the advantages and limitations of different analysis/data collating tools such as:

• spreadsheets

• graphs – pie charts, bar charts, frequency, mean.

Have students interpret data that is presented using different data collating tools

Students share their interpretations to identify those tools that provide similar information and those which are different. Discuss why any such differences occurred.

Level five

Achievement objective

Students will:

Analyse their own and others’ outcomes to inform the development of ideas for feasible outcomes. Undertake ongoing functional modelling and evaluation that takes account of key stakeholder feedback and trialling in the physical and social environments. Use the information gained to select and develop the outcome that best addresses the specifications. Evaluate the final outcome’s fitness for purpose against the brief.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level five teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with clear specifications against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that supports student innovation and encourages analysis of existing outcomes
  • provide opportunities to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • provide a range of materials/components and support students to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and use them
  • guide students to evaluate outcomes in situ against brief specifications.

Indicators

Students can:

  • generate design ideas that are informed by research and analysis of existing outcomes
  • undertake functional modelling to develop design ideas into a conceptual design that addresses the specifications
  • evaluate suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome
  • produce and trial a prototype of the outcome
  • evaluate the fitness for purpose of the final outcome against the specifications.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Generate design ideas that are informed by research and analysis of existing outcomes

Analyse past students practice used in developing design ideas including their use of functional modelling.

Use portfolios of previous students practice and/or Case studies

Focus analysis on how technological modelling was used to test the potential feasibility (fitness for purpose) of design ideas.

Suggest additional design features and the attributes to extend an existing outcomes

Insist that the additional design features and their attributes need to be informed by and enhance already existing attributes that the outcome possesses.

Enhance student’s visual communication techniques.

Teach students skills and techniques in visually communicating their design ideas using such things as:

• Rapid Viz techniques

• Photoshop

• Google sketchup

• Crocodile clips

• Inspiration

Undertake functional modelling to develop design ideas into a conceptual design that addresses the specifications

Analyse past students' practice used in developing technological outcomes.

Use portfolios of previous students practice and/or Case studies

Focus analysis on the functional modelling that took place to test the potential fitness for purpose of design ideas.

Develop students functional modelling techniques to:

• test design ideas

• communicate conceptual designs. Have them identify the advantages and limitations of each technique.

Look at models, mockups, testing and trailing techniques that allow the communication and testing of design ideas and conceptual designs

• physical models – construction and testing techniques

• virtual models (use of 3D modelling programmes).

Enhance student skills in communicating design ideas and conceptual designs.

Focus on introducing to students new skills and/or modes for communicating design ideas and conceptual designs including the use of:

• CAD programs like Autodesk 

• Freehand and instrumental drawing 3D and 2D models ISOMETRIC DRAWING AND DESIGNERS

• verbal explanations

• video.

Evaluate suitability of materials/ components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome

Analyse Case Studies of others practice to identify how they have justified materials/ components as being suitable for use in their technological outcome(s).

Focus analysis on the research and testing that was undertaken to determine material/component suitability.

Develop an attribute profile for the materials used in an existing product that is familiar to students, such as chairs around the school.

Match material specifications to the specifications needed for the product to be fit for purpose. 

See:

www.designmuseum.org

Smithsonian

www.designcouncil.org.uk

Have a practicing technologist explain how they determine the suitability of a material(s) for a specific function within a technological outcome.

www.powerhousemuseum.com/designersatwork

Produce and trial a prototype of the outcome

Explore a variety of tools that can

support the development and trialing of a prototype.

Explore tools such as:

• 3D modelling programs – AutoDesk, ProDesktop/ ProEngineer, SketchUp

• 2D, 3D – hard materials, cardboard

• video – capturing trial results/outcome

• Photoshop, InDesign and/or Illustrator – these programs can enable the prototype to be shown virtually in its intended social and physical environment.

Students analysis and compare existing products related to their concept design

Technology student website – product comparisons

Analyse others practice to determine the nature of the overall practice they applied, and the technological modelling tools

and techniques they used to test their prototype.

Use exemplars of previous students work and/or Case studies

Trialing a prototype to demonstrate its potential to address the brief.

Test the performance of the prototype in situ against the brief specifications to determine its fitness for purpose.

Evaluate the fitness for purpose of the final outcome against the specifications.

Analyse case studies of others practice to identify the tools and strategies they used to justify their outcome(s) as fit for purpose.

Use exemplars of previous students work and/or Case studies and/or the work of a practicing technologist

Dragons Den presentation.

Students present their prototype and justifications as to why it is fit for purpose – others evaluate if the justifications provided are convincing or not.

Students present their prototypes and findings from trialing using written evaluations, powerpoint and/or a video presentation.

Presentation of prototype to an audience for evaluative feedback.

Level six

Achievement objective

Students will:

Critically analyse their own and others’ outcomes to inform the development of ideas for feasible outcomes. Undertake ongoing experimentation and functional modelling, taking account of stakeholder feedback and trialling in the physical and social environments. Use the information gained to select, justify, and develop a final outcome. Evaluate this outcome’s fitness for purpose against the brief and justify the evaluation using feedback from stakeholders.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level six teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with clear specifications against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that supports student innovation and encourages critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • support students to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • support students to explore a range of materials/ components and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and use them
  • support students to undertake prototyping to evaluate the outcome’s fitness for purpose and identify any further development requirements
  • support students to gain targeted stakeholder feedback.

Indicators

Students can:

  • generate design ideas that are informed by research and the critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • undertake functional modelling to refine design ideas and enhance their ability to address the specifications
  • evaluate design ideas in terms of their ability to support the development of a conceptual design for a feasible outcome
  • evaluate the conceptual design against the specifications to determine the proposed outcomes potential fitness for purpose
  • evaluate suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome
  • produce and trial a prototype of the outcome to evaluate its fitness for purpose and identify any changes that would enhance the outcome
  • use stakeholder feedback to support and justify key design decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Generate design ideas that are informed by research and the critical analysis of existing outcomes

Have students critically analyse a case study or an existing technological outcome from others prior practice to identify those features which completely address the specifications it was designed to perform/ meet and those that were only partly addressed.

Identify the types of knowledge and understandings required by the technologist (person who made the outcome) in order to produce their outcome(s). Have students focus on:

• the materials that were used

• the tests undertaken to justify the outcomes addressing of the need or opportunity

• component parts included in the outcome – what part do they play in the overall function/aesthetic qualities of the outcome

• the knowledge from other domains that the technologist drew on to develop their outcome?

• identifying the opportunities that exist to improve the outcome.

Analyse existing products that have similar functional properties to those required in the outcome students are developing.

Use a PMI chart to identify those functional properties that may be useful to consider when the students develop their own outcome – identify design ideas for how these could be included into their outcome.

Encourage students to access stakeholder feedback and considered this when generating their design ideas.

Students need to identify their key stakeholder/s and determine the tools they will use to obtain this feedback.

Undertake functional modelling to refine design ideas and enhance their ability to address the specifications

.

Develop students functional modelling techniques to:

• test design ideas

• communicate conceptual designs

Look at models, mockups, testing and trialing software that enables the communication and testing of design ideas and conceptual designs such as:

Autodesk Student Education (free 3D modelling software & tutorials)

• Blender (shareware)

Explore ways/techniques to test design ideas and conceptual designs including: CAD programs; physical drawing; 3D and 2D physical models; verbal - Audacity – voice thread; video.

Analyse advantages and disadvantages of each testing/communicative technique.

Explore techniques for gaining wider community feedback

Explore techniques for effectively communicating design

ideas to the wider community including: email; Skype; phone;

fax; solid modelling.

Analyse advantages and disadvantages of each communicative technique.

Evaluate design ideas in terms of their ability to support the development of a conceptual design for a feasible outcome

Use photographs and/or mock-ups of existing design ideas.

Students analyse against a set of given specifications to determine if the design ideas have the potential to address the need/opportunity.

If changes necessary suggest what these might be.

Provide students with opportunities to sketch and mockup design ideas – evaluate these against known key specifications to determine if the ideas have the potential to be developed into a conceptual design that addresses a brief.

Focus learning not just on developing student sketching and mockup techniques but also on enhancing the quality of the tests they carry out to determine the potential of the design idea.

Provide a selection of technological models/mockups of varies design ideas for an outcome – have students test these against known key specifications to determine if the ideas have the potential to be developed into a conceptual design that addresses a brief.

Provide students with a variety of 2D and 3D mockups, graphical representations of design ideas with descriptions, virtual models, and descriptions only of design ideas.

Evaluate the conceptual design against the specifications to determine the proposed outcomes potential fitness for purpose

Students analyse a variety of tools that support functional modelling.

Explore, analyse and develop skills in using functional modelling tools such as:

• 3D modelling programs – AutoDesk, SketchUp, Blender

• 2D, 3D – hard materials, cardboard

• video – capturing in terms of virtual representation

• Photoshop, InDesign and/or Illustrator – these programs can enable the prototype to be shown virtually in its intended social and physical environment.

Analyse others' practice to determine the nature of the overall practice they applied to determine the fitness for purpose of conceptual designs and the functional modelling they used to do this.

Use exemplars of previous students work - see Case studies 

Evaluate suitability of materials/ components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome

Analyse their own and others technological practice to identify how they have justified their selection of materials/components.

Have students present and justify their findings.

Analyse case studies of others practice to identify how they have justified material suitability for their technological outcome(s).

Use existing outcomes to assist students to identify the materials/components used and explore their attributes/reasons why they may have been selected for the inclusion in the outcome.

Develop an attribute profile of the materials/ components used in an existing product which is familiar to students. Repeat activity with products which students are initially not familiar with.

Do exercises such as SCUMPS – size, colour, uses, materials, parts, shape. Relate these prompts to ‘what if…’ questions. For example:

• What if you change the colour of the outcome/materials…?

• What if you change the use of the outcome…?

• What if you change the materials used in the outcome…?

• What if you change a part of the component…?

• What if you change the shape of the outcome…?

Produce and trial a prototype of the outcome to evaluate its fitness for purpose and identify any changes that would enhance the outcome

Explore a variety of tools and techniques

that can support the production of a prototype and determine their advantages and limitations.

Prototyping tools and techniques explored could include:

• CAD programs – AutoDesk, ProDesktop/ProEngineer, SketchUp

• 2D, 3D – hard materials, cardboard

• video – capturing in terms of virtual representation

• Photoshop, InDesign and/or Illustrator – these programs can enable the prototype to be shown virtually in its intended social and physical environment.

Trial a prototype performance and evaluate its fitness for purpose.

Use either an existing prototype with a known set of

specifications that it was required to meet or students' own developed prototype.

Focus on enhancing students trialing and evaluation techniques.

Students suggest changes that would enable the outcome to be fit for purpose.

Analyse others' practice to determine the nature of the overall practice they applied, and the trialing techniques they used to test their prototypes fitness for purpose.

Use exemplars of previous students work and/or Case studies 

Use stakeholder feedback to support and justify key design decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.

Analyse case studies of others practice to identify the tools and strategies they used to seek stakeholder feedback and key design decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.

Peer Evaluation: presentation of findings to the class for evaluative feedback.

Written personal evaluation. Video presentation.

Level seven

Achievement objective

Students will:

Critically analyse their own and others’ outcomes and evaluative practices to inform the development of ideas for feasible outcomes. Undertake a critical evaluation that is informed by ongoing experimentation and functional modelling, stakeholder feedback, and trialling in the physical and social environments. Use the information gained to select, justify, and develop an outcome. Evaluate this outcome’s fitness for purpose against the brief. Justify the evaluation using feedback from stakeholders and demonstrating a critical understanding of the issue.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level seven teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with clear specifications against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that supports student innovation and encourages critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • support students to critically analyse evaluative practices used within functional modelling
  • support students to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • support students to explore a range of materials/ components, and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and make effective use of them
  • support students to undertake prototyping to gain evidence that enables clear judgments regarding the outcome’s fitness for purpose and determine the need for any changes to enhance the outcome
  • support students to gain targeted stakeholder feedback and understand the implications of the physical and social environment in which the outcome is to be located.

Indicators

Students can:

  • generate design ideas that are informed by research and critical analysis of existing outcomes
  • develop design ideas for outcomes that are justified as feasible with evidence gained through functional modelling
  • critically analyse evaluative practices used when functional modelling to inform own functional modelling
  • undertake functional modelling to evaluate design ideas and develop and test a conceptual design to provide evidence of the proposed outcome’s ability to be fit for purpose
  • evaluate suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome
  • undertake prototyping to gain specific evidence of an outcome’s fitness for purpose and use this to justify any decisions to refine, modify and/or accept the outcome as final
  • use stakeholder feedback and an understanding of the physical and social requirements of where the outcome will be situated to support and justify key design decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Generate design ideas that are informed by research and critical analysis of existing outcomes

Analyse a case study or outcomes from a student’s prior practice and/or a practicing technologist to determine how it was justified as being fit for purpose.

Identify the knowledge and understandings that the student or technologist needed to know in order to produce the outcome(s).

Questions that could be used to support this analysis may include:

• What materials were used in the outcome?

• How were these determined to be fit or purpose?

• What prior knowledge was required to develop the outcome?

• How did this inform the development of the outcome?

• How did the student/technologist test their outcome to ensure its fitness for purpose?

• What types of components were included in the outcome

– what part do they play in ensuring the overall fitness or purpose of the outcome?

Analyse Frank Geary – sketch modelling (modelling before sketching).
Develop design ideas for outcomes that are justified as feasible with evidence gained through functional modelling

Trial ways of functional modelling to test and communicate design ideas. Identify advantages and disadvantages of each model and determine situations when each is best to use.

Explore modelling, mockups, testing, trialing software that enables functional modelling to be undertaken. Examples of such software include:

• Autodesk

• Blender (both free software for schools & students)

Explore strategies to gain wider community feedback.

Explore means of capturing evidence of testing and communicating design ideas using:

• CAD programs

• physical drawing

• 3D and2D physical models and mockups

• verbal - Audacity – voice thread

• video

Using communication tools to communicate conceptual ideas to key and wider community stakeholders such as:

• email

• Skype

• phone

• solid modelling

Critically analyse evaluative practices used when functional modelling to inform own functional modelling

Analyse case studies of others practice to identify the evaluative practices they used when functional modelling.

Determine how a technologist justified the design idea/conceptual designs potential to be fit for purpose.

Critically analyse tools that support evaluative practices when functional modelling.

Examples of evaluative tools that support functional modelling include:

• CAD programs – AutoDesk, SketchUp

• 2D, 3D – hard materials, cardboard

• Video – capturing in terms of virtual

• Photoshop, InDesign and/or Illustrator – these programs can enable the prototype to be shown virtually in its intended social and physical environment.

Undertake functional modelling to evaluate design ideas and develop and test a conceptual design to provide evidence of the proposed outcome’s ability to be fit for purpose

Analyse others' practice to determine the nature of the overall practice they applied and the functional modelling they used to test and develop their design ideas into a conceptual design.

Use exemplars of previous students' work, Case studies or a visit to a practicing technologist to observe and discuss their practice when developing design ideas into a conceptual design. Focus on the functional modelling techniques that were used to test and inform the development of conceptual designs.

Using functional modelling to test design ideas and gain stakeholder feedback.

Use PMI charts to order and sort results from testing and stakeholder feedback. Evaluate to determine design ideas potential as a conceptual design.

Evaluate suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome

Analyse case studies of others practice to identify how they determined the suitability

of materials/components based on their performance properties.

Have students present and justify their findings to the class.

Explore material/component testing techniques to test their potential fitness for purpose for inclusion in an outcome.

Trial a range of different materials/ components and testing techniques that focus on determining performance properties. Explore how the testing techniques may need to change depending on the environment in which the material/ component is being tested and/or the performance properties being tested

Undertake prototyping to gain specific evidence of an outcomes fitness for purpose and use this to justify any decisions to refine, modify and/or accept the outcome as final

Expose students to a range of prototyping techniques (internet, YouTube).

Students produce a prototype(s) that can be tested in situ and evaluated against the brief specifications.

Identify the key element/s to be tested in a prototype and how the test could be conducted.

Explore how others conduct tests to determine the fitness for purpose of their prototype(s) – analyse findings to determine tests which may be suitable to conduct for their own developed prototype.

Construct a prototype and test it to determine its fitness for purpose.

Use stakeholder feedback during testing as well as the results of the tests themselves to determine whether to refine, modify or accept the outcome.

Use stakeholder feedback and an understanding of the physical and social requirements of where the outcome will be situated to support and justify key design decisions and evaluations of fitness for purpose.

Develop evaluation criteria to determine the key design decisions which need to be made and to justify an outcome as fit for purpose.

The criteria developed should allow informed experts/focus groups to judge the success or otherwise of the outcome. Students will need to access the environment/location where the outcome is to be placed in order to evaluate all the environmental factors both known and unknown (physical and social) that can impact on the outcome.

Develop understandings of the techniques used to gain key and wider community stakeholder feedback such as:

• using random selected, representative sampling or control group testing panels

• monadic testing

• paired-comparison testing.

Trial different techniques with key and wider community stakeholders using an existing product and known specifications to determine when best to use these techniques and the validity and reliability of the feedback received.

Level eight

Achievement objective

Students will:

Critically analyse their own and others’ outcomes and their determination of fitness for purpose in order to inform the development of ideas for feasible outcomes. Undertake a critical evaluation that is informed by ongoing experimentation and functional modelling, stakeholder feedback, trialling in the physical and social environments, and an understanding of the issue as it relates to the wider context. Use the information gained to select, justify, and develop an outcome. Evaluate this outcome’s fitness for purpose against the brief. Justify the evaluation using feedback from stakeholders and demonstrating a critical understanding of the issue that takes account of all contextual dimensions.

Teacher guidance

To support students to undertake outcome development and evaluation at level eight teachers could:

  • ensure that there is a brief with clear specifications against which a developed outcome can be evaluated
  • establish an environment that supports student innovation and encourages critical analysis of existing outcomes and knowledge of material innovations
  • support students to critically analyse the ways in which the fitness for purpose of existing outcomes have been determined, and how appropriate development practices were established
  • support students to develop drawing and modelling skills to communicate and explore design ideas. Emphasis should be on progressing 2D and 3D drawing skills and increasing the range and complexity of functional modelling
  • support students to explore a range of materials/components and to develop the necessary knowledge and skills to evaluate and make effective use of them.
  • support students to establish which materials/components would be optimal for use when taking into account all contextual dimensions
  • support students to undertake prototyping to gain evidence that enables clear judgments regarding the outcome’s fitness for purpose and determine the need for any changes to enhance the outcome
  • support students to gain targeted stakeholder feedback and understand the implications of the physical and social environment in which the outcome is to be located.

Indicators

Students can:

  • generate design ideas that are informed by research and critical analysis of existing outcomes and knowledge of material innovations
  • develop design ideas for feasible outcomes that are justified with evidence gained through functional modelling that serves to gather evidence from multiple stakeholders and test designs ideas from a range of perspectives
  • undertake evaluation of design ideas informed by critical analysis of evaluative practices to support the development of a conceptual design for an outcome that optimises resources and takes into account maintenance and disposal implications
  • undertake functional modelling of the conceptual design to provide evidence that the proposed outcome has the potential to be fit for purpose
  • evaluate suitability of materials/components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome that optimises resources and takes into account maintenance and disposal implications
  • undertake prototyping to gain specific evidence of an outcome’s fitness for purpose and use this to justify any decisions to refine, modify and/ or accept the outcome as final
  • use stakeholder feedback and an understanding of the physical and social requirements of where the outcome will be situated to support and justify an evaluation of the outcome and development practices as fit for purpose.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Generate design ideas that are informed by research and critical analysis of existing outcomes and knowledge of material innovations

Compare and contrast the knowledge used by practicing technologists - use live presentations by technologists and/or case studies /videos of technologists practice.

What knowledge did the technologists need to know in order to generate design ideas that offered a contribution to allowing an outcome to be fit for purpose - how did this knowledge differ between the technologists.

Use a graphic organiser to compare and contrast the knowledge they used.

Compare and contrast the research techniques used by practicing technologists - use live presentations by technologists and/or case studies /videos of technologists practice.

Use a graphic organiser to compare and contrast the research techniques they used. Determine situations where one technique may be more suitable than another.

Determining the difference between analysis and critical analysis

Case studies / videos of technologists practice and/or students past technological practice to identify features of ‘critical analysis’ as opposed to an ‘analysis’. Use a graphic organiser to compare and contrast these differences.

Develop design ideas for feasible outcomes that are justified with evidence gained through functional modelling that serves to gather evidence from multiple stakeholders and test designs ideas from a range of perspectives

Trial ways of modelling to test and communicate feasible outcomes. Identify advantages and disadvantages of each model and determine situations when each would be best to use.

Explore modelling, mockups, testing, trialing software that enables you to model: Autodesk and Blender (free) Identify the advantages and limitations of this software. Capture evidence for testing design ideas with multiple stakeholders and communicating design ideas using: CAD programs; physical drawings; 3D and 2D physical models and mockups; verbal - Audacity – voice thread; video.

Students explore strategies to gain key and wider community feedback

Identify advantages and disadvantages of using tools to communicate conceptual ideas to key and wider community stakeholders such as: email; Skype, Google Hangout, Zoom, phone, solid modelling.

Developing student skills in using tools to support functional modeling.

Functional modelling tools could include:

• CAD programs – AutoDesk, SketchUp, etc.

• 2D, 3D – hard materials, cardboard

• video – capturing in terms of virtual

• Photoshop, InDesign and/or Illustrator – these programs can enable the prototype to be shown virtually in its intended social and physical environment.

Use of thinking tools to support justification of the potential fitness purpose of design ideas.

Explore thinking tools such as:

• CAMPER (consequences, actions, minimisations...)

• SWOT/SWOB analysis

• Waterfall questions

• ‘What if…’ questions

Undertake evaluation of design ideas informed by critical analysis of evaluative practices to support the development of a conceptual design for an outcome that optimises resources and takes into account maintenance and disposal implications

Break down complex ideas into smaller, more understandable parts.

An example see: Kiran Sethi: Kids, take charge | TED Talk 

Analyse the relationship between the materials and their use within a technological outcome.

Topic = material (for example, the use of silver within an item of jewellery) and topics for discussion are:

A= physical properties of material

B= environmental consideration for its inclusion in the outcome (both during development of the outcome and in use within its intended environment

C= fitness for purpose of material within overall outcome.

Ask students to discuss the material in relation to topics ABC (Note: more topics can be added to increase the complexity of this activity) Use techniques such as CAMPER (consequence,....) and

SCAMPER (substitute, consequences, actions, minify/ modify/magnify, put into another use, eliminate, reverse) to focus on enhancing students ability to critically analyse.

Undertake functional modelling of the conceptual design to provide evidence that the proposed outcome has the potential to be fit for purpose

Analyse others' practice to determine the nature of the overall practice they applied and the functional modelling they used to test their developing outcome.

Use exemplars of previous students' work, Case studies or a visit to a practicing technologist for students to observe and discuss their practice. Focus analysis on functional modelling techniques that were used to test and inform the development of the outcome(s) and ensure its overall fitness for purpose.

Evaluate suitability of materials/ components, based on their performance properties, to select those appropriate for use in the production of a feasible outcome that optimises resources and takes into account maintenance and disposal implication Analyse case studies of others practice to identify how they have justified the suitability of materials/ components they have included (and if possible excluded) for use in an outcome.

Students present and justify their outcomes as being fit for purpose to an expert technologist (Dragons Den format) and receive their feedback.

Focus student justifications on how they:

• determined the suitability of materials/components included outcome

• considered how to optimises the resources used to develop an outcome

• considered the maintenance and disposal requirements of the outcome post its implementation.

Identifying advantages and disadvantages of materials/ components testing techniques to test the fitness for purpose for inclusion in an outcome

Techniques explored could include those such as:

• using randomly selected, representative sampling or control group testing panels

• monadic testing

• paired-comparison testing.

Undertake prototyping to gain specific evidence of an outcomes fitness for purpose and use this to justify any decisions to refine, modify and/ or accept the outcome as final

Expose students to a range of prototyping techniques (use the internet, YouTube)

Students produced prototypes need to be placed in situ and evaluated against the specifications.

Suggestions for refinements/ improvements to the prototype justified against test findings.

Use of evaluative experts/focus groups.

Use of an informed experts/focus group to evaluate the fitness for purpose of the prototype.

Use stakeholder feedback and an understanding of the physical and social requirements of where the outcome will be situated to support and justify an evaluation of the outcome and development practices as fit for purpose.

Develop evaluation criteria to determine the key design decisions that need to be made and justify the outcomes as fit for purpose.

The criteria developed will need to allow an informed experts/focus group to judge the success or otherwise of the outcome.

Students will need to access the environment/location where the outcome is to be located in order to evaluate all of the environmental factors both known and unknown. (physical and social) that may impact on the outcome.

Presentation to an expert and/ or stakeholder (key and wider community) forum

Demonstrate that the evaluation undertaken to determine the fitness for purpose of an outcome was robust and considered all of the functional and physical properties required in the outcome.

Indicators of Progression – Outcome development and evaluation (Word 2007, 138 KB)

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by strand) – pdf file, 340kb

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by level) – pdf file, 319kb

Progression diagram – Outcome development and evaluation (PDF, 168 KB)

Acknowledgment

The indicators of progression for the components of the Technological Practice strand were developed by Dr Vicki Compton and Cliff Harwood (2010).

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