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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore tō tātou waka e ū ki uta

Indicators of progression: Characteristics of technology

The indicators that follow describe the knowledge, skills, and understandings that students should be demonstrating in the Characteristics of technology component of the technology curriculum.

Indicators are provided for each level of the curriculum and are accompanied by guidance for teachers.

Level one

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technology is purposeful intervention through design

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 1, teachers could:

  • provide opportunities for students to discuss what is meant by the made, natural, and social world and guide them to identify technological outcomes as making up a significant part of the made world
  • provide students with examples of technologists and guide them to identify the sort of things they do as part of their technological practice. Technological practice involves the defining practices underpinning the development of a brief, the organising practices underpinning planning, and the production and evaluation practices involved in the development of an outcome that is fit for purpose as defined by the brief
  • guide students to identify that the aim of technology is to design and make outcomes for an identified purpose.

Indicators

Students can:

  • identify that technology helps to create the made world
  • identify that technology involves people designing and making technological outcomes for an identified purpose
  • identify that technological practice involves knowing what you are making and why, planning what to do and what resources are needed, and making and evaluating an outcome.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicator Teaching Strategy & explanation
Identify that technology helps to create the made world

Using pictures of products or actual objects have a teacher led discussion about what they do, and how technological practice helps create the made world.

Answer questions such as:

• What is the purpose of the product/object?

• How has technological practice helped create the made world as we know it?

Walking activity.

Go for a walk and identify those objects that are a result of technology and those that are not – identify characteristics that make objects a technology.

 

Analysing student familiar products.

Students bring in toys from home and discuss things such as:

• Why was this toy made?

• What did the technologist do to make the toy?

Identify that technology involves people designing and making technological outcomes for an identified purpose

Using student-familiar products (or pictures of products) have a discussion with students to find out what they know about the technical practice that may have been undertaken by a technologist to make a product.

Note: Also encourage discussion around the intention and purposeful of this activity.

Use products known to students, such as toys students play with

– discuss:

• What the technologist needed to do and know to make them

• What age range of children/adults play with the products

• What the purpose of the product is - what it does

Provide students with a food product (such as a pizza) and a range of ingredients and ask them to choose which ones they think would have been used to make the pizza.

Challenge students to explain those they think were used by asking: ‘Why?’.

Use a range of images / outcomes of both familiar and unfamiliar items.

On a graphic organizer, have students record who the intended user might be, and the reason they needed the outcome.

Identify that technological practice involves knowing what you are making and why, planning what to do and what resources are needed, and making and evaluating an outcome.

Visit to a practicing technologist to see the work they are involved in doing.

Discuss things such as:

• What it is a technologists does

• How they know people will want the outcomes they produce

• How they know what materials/resources they will need to make their outcomes.

Identify that technological practice involves knowing what you are making and why, planning what to do and what resources are needed, and making and evaluating an outcome.

Visit to a practicing technologist to see the work they are involved in doing.

Discuss things such as:

• what it is a technologists does

• how they know people will want the outcomes they produce

• how they know what materials/resources they will need to make their outcomes.

Level two

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technology both reflects and changes society and the environment and increases people’s capability.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 2, teachers could:

  • provide opportunities for students to discuss the made, natural, and social world and guide them to explore how technology relates to each of these
  • provide students with examples of different technologist’s practice and guide them to identify any social and/or environmental issues that might have influenced their practice and the nature of the outcomes they produce. For example: social attitudes to the environment has resulted in some technologists choosing to only use renewable materials, cold and windy environmental considerations requiring clothing outcomes that have insulating and close- fitting attributes
  • provide students with examples of technological outcomes and guide them to explore how these have changed over time and identify any changes that have resulted in terms of people’s capability to do things. Examples should allow students to recognize that increasing capability to do things may result in both positive and negative impacts on the person, society and/or the environment
  • provide students with the opportunity to explore a range of technologies and guide them to identify examples of positive and negative impacts on people, society and/or the environment.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe the relationship between technology and the made, natural and social world
  • identify social and/or environmental issues that may have influenced particular technological practices and/or the attributes of outcomes produced
  • describe how particular technological outcomes have changed over time and identify if this resulted in changing how people do things
  • describe examples to illustrate when technology has had a positive impact on society and/or the environment
  • describe examples to illustrate when technology has had a negative impact on society and/or the environment.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Describe the relationship between technology and the made, natural and social world

Discuss differences between products, naturally occurring objects and social systems (such as the school timetable)

Have students categorise objects (products, natural objects, and social systems). Discuss relationships and what defines them as belonging to these categories.

Identify social and/or environmental issues that may have influenced particular technological practices and/or the attributes of outcomes produced

Identify what influenced the attributes of familiar products.

Use familiar products (such as convenience food, breakfast food, school bag, sports boots), and:

• identify their attributes

• identify why these attributes are important to the function of the product

• ask why these attributes are important.

Compare “old” and “new” versions of technological outcomes (products), such as domestic phone versus cell phone, games (board games versus electronic).

Using pictures of old telephones (timeline of photos) discuss with students how people have expanded their lives through communication. Ask students:

• What do you use phones for today?

• Who uses them?

• What were the older phones able to do?

• What limits the ability of older phones to be useful today?

Explore examples of technological developments in history and discuss how they have changed how people do things.

Technology student website - technological developments in history.

Using a Venn diagram, compare old and new technological outcomes, such as a fax machine and texting, a landline dial phone and a smartphone.

Ask questions such as:

• What kind of technological outcomes are referred to as ‘old’ and ‘new’?

• What functions do they perform that are the same/different?

• What technologies do they possess that are the same/different?

Describe how particular technological outcomes have changed over time and identify if this resulted in changing how people do things

Compare “old” and “new” versions of technologies (products), such as operator required phone versus push button phone, games (board games versus electronic), coal range versus electric oven, convection oven versus microwave oven.

Using pictures of technologies (timeline of photos) discuss with students how advances in these technologies have resulted in changes in how people do things. Ask students:

• What do people do differently today as a result of the advancements in …. (cooking appliances, telecommunications/phones etc)?

• What were the older technologies able to do?

• What do the new technologies now enable that is different?

Describe examples to illustrate when technology has had a positive impact on society and/or the environment

De Bono’s Thinking Hats = Yellow hat

Choose a technological outcome (such as car, TV, soft drink...) and discuss:

• how the technological outcome has helped people

• how the technological outcome has impacted on the environment.

PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting)

Choose technological developments that are both obviously positively or negatively impact on society ( or ones that can be both ). A plastic drink bottle, for example, is positive on people's health but negative for the environment.

Describe examples to illustrate when technology has had a negative impact on society and/ or the environment.

De Bono’s Thinking Hats = Black hat

As above, but discuss how the technological developments have harmed people and the environment.

Level three

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand how society and environments impact on and are influenced by technology in historical and contemporary contexts and that technological knowledge is validated by successful function.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 3, teachers could:

  • provide students with examples of different technologist’s practice and guide them to identify how social and environmental issues could have influenced their decision making about; what should be made and why, how planning should be done and what resources should be used, how materials could be manipulated and tested, how outcomes should be evaluated, and manufacturing considerations
  • provide students with the opportunity to explore a range of technologies and guide them to determine why they have changed over time. Reasons for changes include such things as changing needs, fashions, attitudes, ethical and environmental stances etc., or the development of new materials, skills and knowledge
  • guide students to determine the impacts different technologies have had on society and/or the environment over time
  • provide students with opportunities to discuss technological knowledge as knowledge that technologists agree is important for the development of a successful outcome and that if this knowledge is useful for a number of situations it can be codified for quick reference. For example; material tolerances, ratios, dosage.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe how societal and/or environmental issues can influence what people decided to make, how they would undertake planning, the selection of resources, and how they would make and test an outcome
  • explain why particular technological outcomes have changed over time
  • describe examples of how technology has impacted on the social world over time
  • describe examples of how technology has impacted on the natural world over time
  • identify that technological knowledge is knowledge that technologists agree is useful in ensuring a successful outcome.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Describe how societal and/or environmental issues can influence what people decided to make, how they would undertake planning, the selection of resources, and how they would make and test an outcome

Use discussion starter cards to engage students in debate

Cards contain written descriptions and/or pictures of a social and/or environmental issue (such as recycling, obesity, security, reducing consumption) and descriptions and/or pictures of real technological practice. Use these cards as starters to discuss how has XXX issues have affected ZZZ?

Analyse contemporary and historical contexts where environmental and/or social issues have influenced the development of a technological outcome. For example: open-cast mining; power generation – turbines in the Kaipara harbor, wind farms, coal/gas generation, hydro generation; car airbags.

Develop a set of questions specific to the context being studied.

Identify the agencies (Department of Conservation, local iwi, etc) that would have an impact on decisions in how the technological outcome was developed.

Train PowerPoint that explains what determined the gauge of train tracks.

Use to PowerPoint as a means for students to identify consequences of cause and effect

Explain why particular technological outcomes have changed over time

Set objects, pictures and/or words that describe how a technological outcome has evolved over time, such as can openers, baby buggies, egg beaters.

Answer questions such as:

• Why have they changed?

• What caused this change: ergonomics?; planned obsolescence?; evolution of materials (plastics, synthetics, electronic components, etc)?

Create a timeline of a range of dissimilar technological outcomes.

Technology student website – timelines activity.

Students choose a technological outcome and investigate its development over history.

Technology student website - bicycles example.

Technology student website - clocks example.

Describe examples of how technology has impacted on the social world over time

Using an existing technology talk about how it impacted a particular group.

Discuss:

• What has happened to people as a result of the implementation of the technology?

• How has the technology evolved over time due to its impact on the group?

Produce a timeline with photographs of the product as it has evolved over time and a description of what has changed.

Topical images of technologies (such as milk powder, windmills, light bulbs etc).

What impacts have these technologies had on peoples lives?

Use De Bono’s Thinking Hats to get different perspectives.

Interview an older person about the technologies they have interacted with.

Interview an older person about life in earlier times. Have students listen and then identify the technological outcomes/products that are not present today.

Describe examples of how technology has impacted on the natural world over time

Discuss changes to the physical environment due to the introduction of a technological outcome. Compare photographs from current and historic periods.

Use a set of historic and contemporary photographs of similar technologies (such as a bicycle). Ask students to identify the key changes in the technologies over time and ask what may have caused these. Use Te Ara or Digital NZ to source images, audio and other information.

Identify that technological knowledge is knowledge that technologists agree is useful in ensuring a successful outcome

Bubble-chart of possible knowledge required by students to develop a technological outcome that addresses an issue.

Students to:

• pick knowledge that they consider will be relevant to addressing the issue

• identify knowledge that is missing in the bubble- chart.

Need-to-know chart.

Students answer the following

• What do we know?

• What do we need to know?

• How do we find out?

Use examples in students favourite TV shows (Bro Town, The Simpsons) viewing YouTube clips from one of these to identify current issues. Ask students “What do we need to know to make ‘this’ work?”

Discuss with students one of these issues or needs and ask them:

What do we need to know to:

• develop an outcome that addresses the issue/need?

• evaluate the outcome as fit for purpose?

Focus students initially on identifying the generic knowledge that is required to undertake technological practice rather than specific context knowledge required to develop the outcome.

Identify the specific knowledge (context knowledge) needed to ensure a basic technological outcome functions (such as a suitable food product as an after school snack)

For example, the specific knowledge required to develop a suitable food product as an afterschool snack includes: ingredients, health and safety, safe oven use, temperature, utensils, cost, mixing, measurements, nutrition, storage, an understanding of consumer preferences, knowledge of evaluation including sensory evaluation, shelf-life, cost, nutritional benefits etc.

Level four

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand how technological development expands human possibilities and how technology draws on knowledge from a wide range of disciplines.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 4, teachers could:

  • provide students with opportunities to examine a range of technologies that have and/or could expand human possibilities by changing people’s sensory perception and/or physical abilities. Examination of technologies should allow students to gain insight into how decisions are based on both what could and what should happen
  • guide students to understand that "expanding human possibilities" can result in positive and negative impacts on societies and natural environments and may be experienced differently by particular groups of people
  • provide students with opportunities to examine and debate examples of innovative technologies that resulted in new possibilities. Examples should draw from the past and present and allow students to identify the creative and critical thinking that underpinned the developments.
  • provide students opportunity to explore the wide range of knowledge and skills from diverse disciplines that support technology
  • provide students opportunity to explore differences between technological knowledge and knowledge from other disciplines
  • guide students to analyse a range of examples of technological practices and to identify the knowledge and skills that informed initial design decisions and ongoing manufacturing decisions. Examples should be drawn from within their own and others’ technological practice and allow students to gain insight into how technological knowledge and skills, and knowledge and skills from other disciplines, can support technology.

Indicators

Students can:

  • identify examples where technology has changed people’s sensory perception and/or physical abilities and discuss the potential short and long term impacts of these
  • identify examples of creative and critical thinking in technological practice
  • identify and categorise knowledge and skills from technology and other disciplines that have informed decisions in technological development and manufacture

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Identify examples where technology has changed people’s sensory perception and/or physical abilities and discuss the potential short and long term impacts of these

Have students pick a decade of New Zealand’s history and find a significant technological development that occurred during this time. Identify how this technological development has expanded human possibilities

Examples of technological developments include: the Hamilton jet boat; the Buzzy bee; pavlova; the electric fence; baby formula; bungy jump.

Review Apple iMac computers clip and identify how technological developments have expanded human possibilities

Watch the Visa evolution ad (4:18) - identify the opportunities that are provided through the use of the current versions of the technologies mentioned in the clip.

Discuss current and potential future impacts.

Identify examples of creative and critical thinking in technological practice

Have students search on YouTube ‘tomorrow's technology new zealand’ and find a New Zealand technological outcome which they can research and discuss. 

Discuss a specific technology and the innovations that have allowed/need to occur to enable these technologies to be realised (developed through to implemented products).

Discuss questions such as:

• What is ‘creative’ about the technology (such as design features

– functions and/or its appearance) and/or its development (such as the reason why it was developed, how it was developed)?

• What ‘critical thinking’ may have been needed to enable the technology to be developed through to implemented products?

Identify and categorise knowledge and skills from technology and other disciplines that have informed decisions in technological development and manufacture

Analyse the technological development used to develop a technological outcome.

For ideas on New Zealand developed technological outcomes google: NZ Inventions

• Contexts that could be explored include:

Nine inventions by talented New Zealanders 

Maungatautari Reserve Vermin-proof fence

   • New Zealand Inventions Shaping The World As We Know It 

Have students discuss questions such as:

• What was the main issue(s)/problem(s) that needed resolution?

• What knowledge (specific and generic) did the technologists need to resolve the issue/problem(s)?

• What skills did the technologist need to resolve the issue/

problem?

Identify the knowledge and skills that have informed design decisions in particular technological developments.

Level five

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand how people’s perceptions and acceptance of technology impact on technological developments and how and why technological knowledge becomes codified.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 5, teachers could:

  • provide students with opportunities to examine and debate examples of innovative technological developments. Examples should draw from the past and present and allow students to explore how creative and critical thinking impacts on developments and how what could happen and what should happen were considered
  • guide students to analyse a range of examples of technologies to examine how people’s perceptions and/or level of acceptance has influenced the practices and decisions underpinning their development and implementation. Examples should be drawn from the past and present to allow students to gain insight into the influence past experiences have on the perception and acceptance of existing and future technological practice and outcomes
  • guide students to analyse a range of examples of technological practices to identify codified technological knowledge that was used to inform design and manufacturing decisions. Technological knowledge becomes codified when technological experts consider it is useful for a number of situations. Codified technological knowledge refers to such things as codes of standards, material tolerances, and codes of practice including codes of ethics, intellectual property codes, etc. Examples should be drawn from within their own and others’ technological practice
  • provide students with opportunities to discuss the role of codified knowledge in technology and understand why and how particular knowledge becomes codified. Codified knowledge provides others with access to established knowledge and procedures that have been shown to support successful technological developments in the past and can serve to remind technologists of their responsibilities. In this way codified knowledge can be used to provide constructional, ethical and/or legal compliance constraints on contemporary technological practice
  • provide students with opportunities to discuss how established codified knowledge can be challenged and that ongoing revision is important due to the changing made, social and natural world. For example, the development of new materials, tools, and/or techniques, shifting social, political and environmental needs and understandings, and technological outcome malfunction, can all serve to challenge existing codified knowledge.

Indicators

Students can:

  • discuss examples of creative and critical thinking that have supported technological innovation
  • explain how people’s past experiences of technology (both in terms of the nature of practices undertaken and the initial development and ongoing manufacturing of outcomes) influences their perception of technology
  • explain how people’s perception of technology influences their acceptance of technology
  • explain how people’s perception of technology impacts on future technological development
  • explain how and why technological knowledge becomes codified
  • explain the role codified knowledge plays in technological practice.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Discuss examples of creative and critical thinking that have supported technological innovation

Students brainstorm and record all of the technological products they own or use daily.

The intention is to get students to realise they readily accept new technology because of their past experience with technology.

Students investigate their parent’s/grandparent’s acceptance of new technology. (such as smartphones, facetime, video conferencing, microwave).

The intention is that students will realise that other generations have had different experiences with technology than they have, and that this influences their acceptance of new technology.

Watch an advertisement or YouTube clip of a new technology and discuss if we should adopt this new technology. Use words like ethical, equitable, moral, and ask is it environmentally and socially acceptable.

Review future technologies and have students:

• debate if people will accept these technology(s) should they be developed and implemented

• discuss what would need to change for the technology(s) to be accepted.

Use science fiction movie extracts or trailers from a science fiction movie or trailer – see Welcome to the future: 11 ideas that went from science fiction to reality 

Explore websites such as Future technology: 22 ideas about to change our world to find an idea for a technology that is yet to be realised.

Explain how people’s past experiences of technology (both in terms of the nature of practices undertaken and the initial development and ongoing manufacturing of outcomes) influences their perception of technology

Forecasting future developments for everyday (familiar) products.

In groups, students choose an everyday technological product (such as phone, schoolbag…) and brainstorm what further development could be done to this product. Inform these ideas based on your own experiences and predictions about future needs/ technological developments.

The aim is for students to understand how they can influence future development based on experience.

Provide students with a brief to further develop an everyday technological product.

Have students explore design ideas to enhance the functionality/appearance of technological products. Class to provide initial stakeholder feedback on student design ideas. Students then present design ideas to wider stakeholders (parents, grandparents) and compare their feedback to that obtained from the class.

Use a Venn diagram to illustrate found differences between the feedback – students discuss these differences to determine possible reasons for them.

Explain how people’s perception of technology influences their acceptance of technology

Students research different people’s perception of a technology and determine how this influences their acceptance of it.

Use a Venn diagram to illustrate found differences between people’s perceptions – students discuss these differences to determine possible reasons for them.

Explain how people’s perception of technology impacts on future technological development

Review a Youtube video of product failure or technological disasters – for example: Technological disasters.

Students discuss lessons learnt from such disasters and how this informed the development of codified knowledge (such as changes in building codes).

Students realise that lessons can be learnt from failure that can lead to guidelines and codes to prevent failure in the future.

Explain how and why technological knowledge becomes codified

Students do simple tasks, such as package an egg, or drop an egg from a height.

Successful students pass on knowledge of how it worked to others via text.

Students realise that codified knowledge is not only developed from failures, for example, knitting patterns, recipes, sewing patterns, skateboards, music genres.

Explain the role codified knowledge plays in technological practice.

Identify examples of where and when codified knowledge is used.

Brainstorm different occupations and subcultures (such as surfers, computer geeks, electricians, gamers, etc.). 

Discuss the codified knowledge that each of these groups uses

Activity: understanding the purpose for codified knowledge (including graphic codes).

Students brainstorm questions about the value of codified knowledge and then discuss potential answers to them. For example:

• What is the purpose of the codified knowledge?

• Where is this codified knowledge used?

• Who could you expect to understand this codified knowledge?

Codified knowledge in action.

Put an unfamiliar ‘code’ in front of students to see if they can read it/determine what it means.

Discuss the importance of /reason for having standardised codified knowledge.

Have a technologist visit and talk about their responsibilities, and the Codes of Practice and Codes of Ethics they work within.

Set up a scenario where you are going to be developing a technological outcome for a local daycare centre (such as making a movie, toys or furniture). Brainstorm some of the factors you would have to consider in this situation.

Using understandings gained from the visiting technologist, discuss the technologists responsibilities:

• to the community (daycare centre)

• to their professional organisation/peers.

Provide students with a practical example of how a technologist works with codified knowledge when developing a technological outcome.

Students discuss where codified knowledge was used in the development of the outcomes and how this enhanced/hindered the technologists practice in terms of their ability to:

• communicate with their peers

• record ideas.

Level six

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand the interdisciplinary nature of technology and the implications of this for maximising possibilities through collaborative practice.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 6, teachers could:

  • support students to analyse a range of examples of technological development and explain how different disciplines have impacted on the nature of the technological practice undertaken and how this in turn has influenced understandings of the contributing disciplines. Examples should include those from the students own work and others’ technological practice and allow students to gain insight into the interdisciplinary nature of technological practice
  • support students to explore examples of where collaborative work between technologists and/or other people has led to new possibilities for technological practice and/or outcome design. Examples should include those from the students own work and others’ technological practice and allow students to gain insight into the way idea generation and exploration can be enhanced through collaboration
  • support students to understand that interdisciplinary collaboration provides exciting opportunities to "work at the boundaries" of established fields and appreciate that this may lead to situations where no codified technological knowledge exists to guide practice, tensions between people may arise, and a greater number of unknown consequences may result
  • provide students with opportunities to discuss how the interdisciplinary nature of technology and the need for collaboration can influence how technology is understood and accepted by different groups in both positive and negative ways.

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain how different disciplines have impacted on technological practice
  • explain why collaboration is important in technological developments that involve interdisciplinary work
  • explain how interdisciplinary collaboration in technology can enhance and/or inhibit technological development and implementation
  • describe examples of interdisciplinary collaboration in technology that has influenced, or could influence public understanding and acceptance of technology.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Explain how different disciplines have impacted on technological practice

Spend 15 minutes playing computer games. Brainstorm/discuss in pairs the different knowledge bases that were required to develop the game.

Students identify different knowledge bases required to develop the game such as mathematics, physics, graphics, etc. Discuss what each discipline has

contributed to the overall outcome.

Present different examples of technological outcomes that are obvious results of collaborations

For example:

• a tent – textile shell and resistant structure

• an electronic product – package design and electronic circuit design.

Students discuss the links between material areas, common and specific knowledge and the likely attributes that involved successful collaboration

Explain why collaboration is important in technological developments that involve interdisciplinary work

Find an industry example or a case study that shows good collaborative practice between technologists, for example:

The Pixar story

www.melissaplasticdreams.com – Melissa shoe company collaborates with well known fashion/product designers and architects to develop new shoe products)

Students undertake independent inquiry to identify the different disciplines involved and the collaborative practices adopted by technologists and present findings to class.

Students explore examples of where unsuccessful collaborative practices have led to product failure, for example:

YouTube – Toy dog lips

YouTube-product fails 

Students use understandings from research about attributes that contribute to successful collaboration, to determine attributes that contribute to unsuccessful collaboration.

Explain how interdisciplinary collaboration in technology can enhance and/or inhibit technological development and implementation

Research examples where interdisciplinary collaboration in technology has enhanced and/or inhibited a technological development and its implementation.

Students present research findings in a seminar presentation to the class.

Describe examples of interdisciplinary collaboration in technology that has influenced, or could influence on public understanding and acceptance of technology.

Research examples where interdisciplinary collaboration in technology has influenced, or could influence public understandings and acceptance of technology.

Students present research findings in a seminar presentation to the class.

Level seven

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand the implications of ongoing contestation and competing priorities for complex and innovative decision making in technological development.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 7, teachers could:

  • provide students with opportunities to discuss the inseparable nature of technology and society and guide them to explore examples to analyse instances of the complex intertwining of society and technology. Contexts for exploration could be selected from areas such as; communication practices and communication technologies, life experiences and medical technologies, sporting endeavours and equipment/enhancement technologies
  • provide students with opportunities to discuss technology as a field of on-going contestation and competing priorities that require resolution through complex decision making and guide students to recognise the role of functional and practical reasoning in such decision making
  • guide students to critically analyse examples of technological practice to gain insight into how technologists identify and deal with contestable issues by understanding socio-cultural influences. Socio-cultural influences include such things as: social; cultural; political; environmental; and economic influences. This can be done through understanding the socio-cultural influences on fundamental aspects of technology in a particularly defined setting. Aspects of technology include such things as: problem identification and refinement to establish needs and opportunities; the development of designs and technological outcomes; resource selection and justification; post development manufacturing; implementation and ongoing in situ evaluation; maintenance and disposal; and ethical, social and moral responsibilities
  • guide students to critically analyse examples of technological practice to gain insight into how technologists take competing priorities into account during decision making. Competing priorities include such things as: innovation versus acceptance/continuation; time versus quality; majority acceptance versus acceptable to all; social versus environmental benefit; ethical versus legal compliance etc.
  • guide students to critically analyse examples of innovative technological developments. Examples should draw from the past and present and allow students to gain insight into how informed creativity, critical evaluation and the pushing of boundaries can support innovative decision making and outcomes. Opportunity should also be provided to critique innovative developments in terms their impact on how technology is understood and accepted by different groups in both positive and negative ways.

Indicators

Students can:

  • discuss examples to illustrate how socio-cultural factors influence technology and in turn technology influences socio-cultural factors in complex and ongoing ways
  • explain technology as a field of on-going contestation and why competing priorities arise
  • explain how influences and priorities have been managed in technological decisions of the past
  • explain how critical evaluation, informed creativity and boundary pushing impacts on technological development and public views of technology.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Discuss examples to illustrate how socio-cultural factors influences technology and in turn technology influences socio- cultural factors in complex and ongoing ways

Establish factors that technologists may face and their potential priorities when developing a technological outcome.

Brainstorm factors and priorities. Link these to other existing products that exemplify where these factors have been prioritised.

Review designers/technologists such as:

• Victor Papanek – ethical and sustainable design

• Chris Bangle – car design

Identify the socio-cultural factors

that impacted on these technologists' technological practice.

View Technology Online Case Studies - social and cultural search 

Find a suitable case study that highlights the socio-cultural factors that a technologist had to deal with.

Visiting technologist talks to students.

Technologists talks to students about their own decision making process to make complex decisions. Answer student’s

pre-prepared questions that focus on identifying the socio-cultural factors they had to address when developing their product(s).

Choose a technological product and investigate.

Discuss what socio-cultural factors might have influenced the development of the technology.

Explain technology as a discipline of on-going contestation and discuss why competing priorities arise

Establish all factors that technologists may face and their potential priorities.

Brainstorm all factors and priorities. Link to existing products that exemplify these priorities and may cause contestation.

Review  and investigate designers/technologists such as:

• Victor Papanek – ethical and sustainable design

• Chris Bangle – car design

Identify the conflicts and competing priorities that impact on these technologists' technological practice.

Find a suitable case study that highlights the competing priorities that the technologist had to deal with. Class discusses the role of practical and functional reasoning in complex decision making.

Visiting technologist

To talk about their own decision making process to make complex decisions. Answer student’s pre-prepared questions that focus on identifying the competing priorities they had to address when developing their product.

Explain how competing priorities have been managed in technological decisions of the past

Visiting technologist

Technologist talks to students about how influences and priorities have been managed in developing their technological outcome(s). Answer student’s pre- prepared questions that focus on what these influences and priorities where.

Explain how critical evaluation, informed creativity and boundary pushing impacts on technological development and public views of technology

What are boundaries and how do you push them?

Brainstorm and discuss with class. Class debate? See the Ted Talk - Tim Brown on Creativity and Play 

Critically analyse a range of innovative technological outcomes from the past and present.

Choose a range of innovative technological outcomes. Explore www.ted.com videos of the developer talking about the development of the product, or case studies on the development process.

Introduce concepts/contexts that deserve critical evaluation.

Explore sites such as the following for examples of critical evaluations undertaken by technologists:

www.ted.com

www.youtube.com/watch?v=boQ5unUxjuY

   • Design Is [Speculative] Futures Design Thinking - a new toolkit for preemptive design

Level eight

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand the implications of technology as intervention by design and how interventions have consequences, known and unknown, intended and unintended.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technology at level 8, teachers could:

  • support students to critically analyse examples of technological developments and their consequences, known and unknown and intended and unintended, to gain insight into the social responsibility technologists have due to the interventionist nature of technology. Examples should allow students to gain insight into how technology has real and long term impacts
  • for the made, natural and social world. Students should be supported to discuss the implications this has for technologists’ collective responsibility
  • support students to understand that technology can challenge people’s views of what it is to be "human". Contexts for exploration could include contemporary developments in the area of communication technologies, artificial intelligence, human-robotic interfaces, second-life gaming, genetic engineering, nanotechnology etc.
  • support students to explore and critique the role of technology in the creation of sustainable environments. This would include discussion of such things as the ethics of designing for limited technological outcome lifespan, designing to comply with minimal engineering ideals, utilizing and developing sustainable materials, reducing energy consumption and waste, developing and managing socio-technological environments, etc.

Indicators

Students can:

  • discuss technology as intervention by design and explain the impacts and implications of this
  • discuss why technology can challenge people’s views of what it is to be ‘human’
  • critique the role of technology in the development of sustainable environments
  • discuss future scenarios where technology plays out different roles and justify projected impacts.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Discuss technology as intervention by design and explain the impacts and implications of this

Critically analyse case studies of technological developments, for example:

• artificial intelligence (AI)

• genetic modification

• medicine-antibiotics

• space travel

• virtual reality (VR)

Teachers support students to explore the technological developments and their impacts (known and unknown, intended and unintended, long term and short term). Students present and discuss findings to class.

Class debate the role and responsibility of a technologist.

Pose the following Victor Papanek topic as the subject of debate:

‘Whether designers, architects, and engineers can be held personally responsible and

legally liable for creating tools, objects, appliances, and buildings that bring about environmental deterioration.’

Assign students as pro or anti this view and have a formal class debate.

Discuss why technology can challenge people’s views of what it is to be ‘human’

Watch movies and/or You Tube clips that challenge ideas of what it is to be human.

To introduce the concept of ‘challenging what it is to be human’ by watching clips such as:

https://www.soulmachines.com/resources/research/baby-x/ 

Technology is humanity's biggest challenge

Yoshua Bengio | Can AI Help Solve Humanity's Greatest Challenges | ICLR 2019

 

Have students work in groups and produce a short skit/movie clip that challenges people’s view of what it is to be human.

Students present their short skit/movie clip to the rest of the class.

Critique the role of technology in the development of sustainable environments

Analyse technological outcomes developed to ensure a sustainable environment.

Students determine attributes about these technologies that allows them to

be considered as maintaining/ensuring a sustainable environment.

Students use a Venn diagram to illustrate common and different attributes.

Discuss future scenarios where technology plays out different roles and justify projected impacts.

Have students work in pairs/groups

– choose a context (such as artificial intelligence, second-life gaming,

genetic engineering) and research how a technology has played out different roles for different people and justify their projected impacts.

Students use research findings to make a presentation to explain to the class how technology has played out different roles for different people and justify their projected impacts.

Indicators of Progression – Characteristics of technology (Word 2007, 127 KB)

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by strand) – pdf file, 340kb

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by level) – pdf file, 319kb

Progression diagram – Characteristics of technology (PDF, 78 KB)

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