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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore tō tātou waka e ū ki uta

Indicators of progression: Characteristics of technological outcomes

The indicators that follow describe the knowledge, skills, and understandings that students should be demonstrating in the Characteristics of technological outcomes component of the technology curriculum.

Indicators are provided for each level of the curriculum and are accompanied by guidance for teachers.

Level one

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technological outcomes are products or systems developed by people and have a physical nature and a functional nature.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 1, teachers could:

  • provide students with a range of contemporary and historical technological products and systems and encourage them to explore these through such things as: using, "playing", dismantling and rebuilding as appropriate
  • guide students to recognise the products and systems explored as technological outcomes developed by people to be suitable for particular users
  • guide students to identify technological outcomes when presented with a collection of technological and non-technological objects and systems
  • guide students to identify the physical nature of technological outcomes. The physical nature of technological outcomes refers to its physical attributes. For example; size, shape, colour, smell, texture, components, guide students to identify the functional nature of technological outcomes. The functional nature of technological outcomes refers to its functional attributes. That is, what the outcome or part of the outcome does. For example; provides grip, transports mass, stores, joins surfaces.

Indicators

Students can:

  • identify technological outcomes in a group of technological and non- technological objects and systems
  • identify who might use particular technological outcomes
  • identify the physical attributes of technological outcomes
  • identify the functional attributes of technological outcomes.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Identify technological outcomes in a group of technological and non-technological objects and systems

Discuss examples of technological outcomes.

Teacher provides examples of technological outcomes (and calls them tech outcomes) to encourage students to make a connection to people made outcomes.

Whole class, or group discussion, possibly teacher record on flip chart / whiteboard.

How are/were people involved in this technological outcomes development?

A collection of both objects and images of technological and non-technological outcomes.

Students sort objects and images into categories.

Teacher-led discussion on why each outcome is placed in a particular category.

Whole class, or group discussion – teacher could record this on a flip chart / whiteboard.

Identify who might use particular technological outcomes

Descriptive wall chart / poster / literacy strategy.

Using common objects, regularly practice descriptive engagement.

“I’ve got a …….. can you guess what it is and who uses it? Brainstorm strategy/ recording sheets.

Discuss the different people who use and possibly make a technological outcomes, for example: baker – bread

Record discussion on flip chart

Match pictures of technological outcomes with potential end-users.

Match pictures and paste onto a flip chart.

Identify the physical attributes of technological outcomes

Descriptive wall chart / poster / literacy strategy.

“I’ve got a …….. can you guess what it does?” or “Have a look at this, what do you think it will do?

Brainstorm strategy/ recording sheets.

Teachers make sure language such as size, shape, colour, small, texture, components etc. are included in brainstorm discussions.

Teacher uses hidden objects to support the student's understanding about the physical nature of objects.

A version of the Headbands game:

• Students in pairs, sitting so they cannot see each other.

• One has a technological outcome (products/ systems) that they describe in terms of its physical nature, one clue at a time.

• The other student either guesses what it is.

• Student describing gets one point per clue.

Note: the more clues it takes the better because that means they are being very specific.

Example: A vivid marker: Describe its physical nature:

• “It comes in different colours.”

• “It has a lid.”

• “The lid has grooves in it.“

• “The outside of it is made of plastic.”

Identify the functional attributes of technological outcomes.

A version of the Headbands game (as above), describing functional nature.

Example: A vivid marker: Describe its functional nature:

• “It can write on lots of different surfaces.”

• “Its outcome is difficult to remove.”

• “It comes in different colours.”

• “It has a lid.”

• “It has a round/flat tip.”

Descriptive wall chart / poster / literacy strategy.

“I’ve got a …….., can you guess what it does?” or “Have a look at this, what do you think it will do?

Brainstorm strategy/ recording sheets

Over time, using a range of known and unknown objects, encourage discussion around their function.

Level two

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technological outcomes are developed through technological practice and have related physical and functional natures.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 2, teachers could:

  • provide students with a range of technological outcomes and non-technological objects and guide them to identify which of these could be described as technological outcomes and explain why. Technological outcomes are defined as fully realised products and systems, created by people for an identified purpose through technological practice. Once the technological outcome is placed in situ, no further design input is required for the outcome to function. Taking this definition into account, technological outcomes can be distinguished from natural objects (such as trees and rocks etc), and works of art, and other outcomes of human activity (such as language, knowledge, social structures, organisational systems etc)
  • provide students with a range of contemporary and historical technological outcomes and encourage them to explore these through such things as: using, "playing", dismantling and rebuilding as appropriate
  • guide students to identify the technological outcomes explored as products and/or systems. Identifying an outcome as a product or system will influence the description of its physical nature. For example, if a technological outcome is identified as a product, the focus for describing its physical nature will be on the physical attributes afforded
  • by the shaping, cutting, finishing etc of the materials it is made from. If a technological outcome is identified as a system, the focus for describing its physical nature will be on the physical attributes afforded by the components within it and how they are connected
  • guide students to identify the relationship between physical and functional attributes in technological outcomes. For example the flat bottom of a cup (physical attribute) allows it to be stable on a flat surface (functional attribute)
  • guide students to recognise that physical and functional attributes can give clues as to who might use the technological outcome for its intended purpose.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe what technological outcomes are and explain how they are different to natural objects and other things created by people
  • identify a technological product and describe relationships between the physical and functional attributes
  • identify a technological system and describe relationships between the physical and functional attributes
  • describe the physical and/or functional attributes of a technological outcome that provide clues as to who might use it.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Describe what technological outcomes are and explain how they are different to natural objects and other things created by people

Touchy feely bag/photos known and unknown objects.

Categorise objects into technological and non- technological outcomes.

Set up photo/image activity to do the same.

Photo image activity, possibly a street scene, or an older image from inside a house (lounge room).

Give students a photograph (for example: a street scene).

Provide students with a graphic organiser to write two lists: technological and non-technological outcomes.

Have students explain/justify their lists.

Identify a technological product and describe relationships between the physical and functional attributes

Teacher has objects / objects aligned to a context for students to explore, and describe the technological outcome. This strategy could also be used with images.

Set up a series of objects with starter questions for students to explore. Starter questions focus on materials objects are made from and why they’re important for the outcome to function.

Ask students what alternative materials the object could have been made from.

Use a Venn diagram chart to allow students to make connections between what something is made of, and what it can do.
Identify a technological system and describe relationships between the physical and functional attributes

Have a range of technological systems / products. Get students to identify those that are technological systems and the physical attributes of their components.

Teacher guides a discussion around input, output and components, and why the connections between components is important – a remote control toy, windup toy or simple mechanical toy is good for this exercise.

Describe the physical and/ or functional attributes of a technological outcome that provide clues as to who might use it .

Physical and functional object matching game using images.

Students identify the physical and function attributes of a technological outcome from within a topic/context that they are familiar with.

Repeat exercise using a technological outcome from within a topic/context that the students are unfamiliar with.

Level three

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technological outcomes are recognisable as fit for purpose by the relationship between their physical and functional natures.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 3, teachers could:

  • provide students with a range of technological outcomes with unknown functions to explore and guide them to make informed suggestions regarding who might use them and the possible function they could perform, as based on an exploration and analysis of their physical nature
  • provide students with the opportunity to explore a range of technological outcomes that are similar in their functional nature but have differences in their physical natures and vice versa
  • support students to understand that the intended use and users, socio-cultural and physical locations all combine to determine how the physical and functional attributes can be best matched for optimum fitness for purpose. For example;
  • a selection of brooms could be described as having similar functional attributes (clean an area by sweeping unwanted material to another location, able to be used while standing) but whether they are for a young child to sweep dust of the kitchen floor or for an adult to sweep water off driveways will mean quite different physical attributes will be decided upon to ensure the broom is fit for its purpose. Alternatively, a selection of brushes could be described as having similar physical natures (all have flexible bristles) but the way in which they are used will determine their functional nature as to whether they function to clean, act as a reservoir to spread a substance, or to separate something
  • guide students to understand the relationship between the physical and functional nature in a technological outcome. That is, the functional nature requirements set boundaries around the suitability of proposed physical nature options (for example a chair for a child will constrain the dimensions of the chair) and the physical nature options will set boundaries around what functional nature is feasible for a technological outcome at any time (for example heavy cast iron pots will not be suitable for everyday use by the elderly)
  • guide students to understand that the judgment of a technological outcome as a "good" or "bad" is related to the match between its physical and functional nature, its intended user/s and the context they would normally use it in.

Indicators

Students can:

  • describe possible users and functions of a technological outcome based on clues provided by its physical attributes
  • describe examples of technological outcomes with different physical natures that have similar functional natures
  • describe examples of technological outcomes with different functional natures that have similar physical natures
  • explain why a technological outcome could be called a "good" or "bad" design.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation

Describe possible users and functions of a technological outcome based on clues

provided by its physical attributes

If I need something to ............... it will look like.............. and will need to………….

Have students focus on a specific technological outcome and complete the sentence. For example:

“If I made it from metal it would be strong; if I made it from aluminium it would be light.”

Use multiple problem scenarios to challenge students to think about possibilities for a technological outcome in terms of the end user and the physical attributes needed and what it will do in each context.

For example: “I’m working as a food technologist (chef) so if I want a mouth texture that is crunchy, what does the physical nature of the ingredients of the product need to be?”

Describe examples of technological outcomes with different physical natures that have similar functional natures

Use multiple examples of similar products that have the same functional nature, but different physical natures.

Use a combination of both actual outcomes and images of outcomes. Students source their own examples to demonstrate independent understanding.

For example:.

• a range of raising agents to explore how different raising agents affect the physical outcome.

• A range of potato peelers, different looking ones, made from range of materials, but all have same function

• categories of finishes (such as oil, varnish, paint)

• a range of brushes (hair, paint, washing up ….)

Describe examples of technological outcomes with different functional natures that have similar physical natures

Use multiple examples of similar products that have the same physical nature, but with different functional natures

Explore functions of, for example, bags that are there to do similar things in terms of physical nature.

Use a combination of both actual outcomes and images of outcomes. Students source their own examples to demonstrate independent understanding.

The cake, the muffin, the bread, all three have similar functional natures, but each has a different physical nature.

Different products with the same functions.

Develop a picture chart to illustrate how different products are used for similar purposes, Explain how/ why these products can do this.

Explain why a technological outcome could be called a ‘good’ or ‘bad’ design.

Teacher sourced examples of ‘good’ or ‘bad’ (failed ) technological outcomes.

Images and text about successful and failed outcomes.

Teacher leads a discussion about why these technological outcomes might be perceived this way. Students in groups discuss the merits of ‘good’ or ‘bad’ design using guided sentence starters.

Level four

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technological outcomes can be interpreted in terms of how they might be used and by whom and that each has a proper function as well as possible alternative functions.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 4, teachers could:

  • provide students with the opportunity to explore examples of technological outcomes and guide them to identify their proper function. Proper function can be determined from an analysis of both the design intent that drove the outcome’s development as well as how it is most commonly used
  • provide students with examples of technological outcomes where the proper function of a technological outcome has changed over time because an alternative use was successful and then became socially accepted as the norm
  • provide students with examples of technological outcomes that have been used unsuccessfully for other purposes and/or in different environments and support them to identify the negative impacts. Impacts may be in terms of expected action not resulting, damage to the outcome, injury to the user, the damage to the social or physical environment - or any combination of these
  • provide students with a description of an identified purpose (for example, a stated need or opportunity) and other relevant details. These details should include such things as intended users and the environment in which it is to be situated. Support students to generate potential designs for a technological outcome and describe the physical and functional attributes it would require if it could be justified as a good design leading to an outcome that was fit for purpose.

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain the proper function of existing technological outcomes
  • explain how technological outcomes have been successfully used by end-users for purposes other than what they were originally designed for
  • explain how technological outcomes have been unsuccessfully used by end-users for purposes other than what they were originally designed and discuss the impacts of this
  • explain possible physical and functional attributes for a technological outcome when provided with intended user/s, a purpose, and relevant social, cultural and environmental details to work within.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Explain the proper function of existing technological outcomes

Teacher led discussion using a range of technological outcomes.

Object description – What is its intended use (proper function)?

Questions starters that are used to explore a range of technological outcomes

Encourage students to use open-ended question starters, such as:

• What did we intend to use this for?

• How do we know it’s going to function in the way we intend?

• How does its function do that?

Explain how technological outcomes have been successfully used by end-users for purposes other than what they were originally designed for

Students discuss their own and others’ experiences.

Students who take things out of the father’s shed and use them for things that weren’t intended to do.

Teachers demonstrate and discuss

how a range of technological outcomes are successfully used by end-users for purposes other than what they were originally designed for, such as using a screwdriver to open a paint tin.

Explore different tools people use to do things they were never intended to do such as cracking nuts, opening a can, taking the top off a bottle.

Explain how technological outcomes have been unsuccessfully used by end-users for purposes other than what they were originally designed and discuss the impacts of this

Students discuss their own and others’ experiences.

Provide examples of where technological outcomes have been unsuccessfully used by end-users for purposes other than what they were originally designed and discuss the impacts of this.

Explain possible physical and functional attributes for a technological outcome when provided with intended user/s, a purpose, and relevant social, cultural and environmental details to work within

Student analyse unfamiliar technological outcomes to determine their physical and functional attributes.

Justify decisions made in a class presentation.

Level five

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technological outcomes are fit for purpose in terms of time and context. Understand the concept of malfunction and how “failure” can inform future outcomes.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 5, teachers could:

  • guide students to analyse a range of examples of how technological outcomes have been evaluated as fit for purpose according to its appropriateness to the time and context of its development. Examples should be drawn from within students own and others’ technological practice and allow students to examine the criteria used to make the judgment
  • guide students to explore a range of examples of technological outcome failure and support them identify those that are examples of malfunction. Malfunction refers to a single event failure of a technological outcome as opposed to failure due to ‘wear’ or reaching the end of the outcome’s designed lifespan
  • guide students to analyse examples of technological outcome malfunction to gain insight into how such events can inform decisions about the future of the outcome. Decisions may be made to withdraw or modify the technological outcome or retain the outcome with modified operational parameters. Operational parameters refer to the boundaries and/or conditions within which the outcome has been designed to function.

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain why time and context are important criteria for judging the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes
  • evaluate past technological outcomes in the light of experiences subsequent to their development and/or contemporary understandings
  • explain what is meant by the malfunction of technological outcomes
  • explain the cause/s of particular technological outcome malfunction.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicator Teaching Strategy & Explanation
Explain why time and context are important criteria for judging the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes

Identify issues/values/events for a specific time period.

Brainstorm events/issues/values for a specific time-period/decade and discuss

how they influenced the products developed during that time

Provide a range of examples (both actual and images) of a technological outcome as it has evolved over time, such as the telephone, or music players.

Have students sort the examples into the order they perceive they evolved (timeline), suggesting actual years/decades. Research to confirm order and identify likely driving need/societal demands that influenced the functional properties of the technology. Compare two of the examples to identify their functional differences and provide an explanation of these.

Evaluate past technological outcomes in the light of experiences subsequent to their development and/or contemporary understandings

Students investigate historical technology, such as turntables, steam cars.

Students identify the original proper function of the technology and predict what needs to be modified for the technology to be considered fit for purpose today. Predict modifications necessary for the technology to be fit for purpose in 10-20 years.

Explain what is meant by the malfunction of technological outcomes

.

Brainstorm, and record understandings of the term malfunction.

Establish a common understanding or definition of ‘malfunction’ across a range of contexts.

Identify personal experiences of technology malfunction.

Predict what the future could have been like if a popular technological outcome had malfunctioned.

If this product had malfunctioned in the past, how would it have affected future technological outcomes and our lives? Examples might include: the flash drive, the

laptop, antibiotics, post-it notes.

Explain the cause/s of particular technological outcome malfunction

Pick an example of a technological malfunction (disaster): (eg. space shuttle Challenger)

• What caused it?

• What were the consequences for the ongoing development of the technology?

Current news clips of, for example, recalled products, airline disasters

Many websites specialise in technology malfunctions, for example:

• Google search ‘recalled products NZ’ for a list of current products

https://www.recalls.govt.nz/ 

 Recalled food products | NZ Food Safety | NZ Government - MPI

Level six

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that some technological outcomes can be perceived as both product and system. Understand how these outcomes impact on other outcomes and practices and on people’s views of themselves and possible futures.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 6, teachers could:

  • support students to discuss particular technological outcomes as a product and a system and support them to understand that the categorisation of product or system is not an inherent property of the outcome, but rather how it is perceived by people in order to describe, and/or analyse it
  • guide students to explore examples of socio-technological environments to explain how technological outcomes (products and systems) and non-technological entities and systems (people, natural environments, political systems etc.) interact together. Examples should be drawn from past, present and possible future socio- technological environments. Socio-technological environments include such things as communication networks, hospitals, transport systems, waste disposal, recreational parks, factories, power plant etc.
  • support students to understand that interactions in socio-technological environments are complex and result in dynamic relationships between technological outcomes, entities and systems. Guide students to explore the influences and impact of these relationships on the way technological outcomes are developed and manufactured.

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain why some technological outcomes can be described as both a product and a system
  • describe socio-technological environments and the relationships of technological outcomes involved
  • discuss the interactions between technological outcomes, people, and social and physical environments within particular socio-technological environments
  • explain why understanding socio-technological environments allow technological outcomes to be better understood.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Explain why some technological outcomes can be described as both a product and a system

Provide a scaffold in the form of a diagram (graphic organizer) that shows a technological outcome, such as the mobile phone, as being described as both a system and a product.

Students diagrammatically identify the systems (and components of that system) that make up the product – for example, the mobile phone

Extend the diagram out from single product to the supporting systems, such as iTunes store, music library, shareware, accessories – see https://www.apple.com/nz/

Describe socio-technological environments and the relationships of technological outcomes involved

Students explore how technological outcomes interact with the socio-technological environments (where people & groups use technology). 

Predict the impact if the technological outcomes were located in different socio-technological environments.

Students identify historical cases where technological outcomes have impacted positively and where they have impacted negatively on the socio-technological environments where they were situated.

Identify the reasons for this impact (both positive and negative) and what could have been done to ensure that the impact was always positive.

Discuss the interactions between technological outcomes, people, and social and physical environments within particular socio- technological environments

Students explore how people, and social and physical environments interact with technological outcomes, how these interactions make change within and between particular socio-technological.

Examples that could be explored include: personal music systems; sharing music/ movies; recreational parks (Mahurangi, pest control gates).

Students present their findings in a presentation to the class.

Explain why understanding socio-technological environments allow technological outcomes to be better understood.

Students explore examples of where people's understanding of the socio-technological environment where a technological outcome was to be placed ensured that the outcome was accepted into that environment.

Encourage students to explore both historical and contemporary examples.

Students explore examples of where peoples understandings the socio-technological environment where a technological outcome was to be placed, prevented its eventual placement /acceptance within that environment.

Encourage students to explore both historical and contemporary examples.

Level seven

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand that technological outcomes are a resolution of form and function priorities and that malfunction affects how people view and accept outcomes.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 7, teachers could:

  • provide students with opportunities to discuss how malfunction can impact on the design or manufacturing of similar and related technological outcomes
  • provide students with opportunities to identify that form refers to the physical nature of a technological outcome and function refers to the functional nature of the outcome. Design elements related to an outcome’s physical nature include such things as: colour; movement; pattern; proportion; harmony; taste etc. Design elements related to an outcome’s functional nature include such things as strength; durability; stability; efficiency; nutritional value etc. Design elements are prioritised in different ways as determined by such things as a designer’s intent for the outcome, understandings of materials, the socio-cultural location the outcome is to be situated, professional and personal beliefs etc.
  • support students to critically analyse the physical and functional nature of technological outcomes to identify how design elements appear to have been prioritised and to explain how such a prioritisation could be justified
  • support students to analyse the prioritisation of design elements in particular technological outcomes with respect to the intended purpose of the technological outcome, intended users and specific context, the wider socio-technological environment it was a part of, and the era of its development and to make informed judgments as to the outcome’s fitness for purpose.

Indicators

Students can:

  • explain how malfunction can impact on the design and/ or manufacture of similar and related technological outcomes
  • justify how the design elements appear to have been prioritised in technological outcomes
  • justify the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes in terms of their physical and functional nature and socio-technological environment/s they are used within.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Explain how malfunction can impact on the design and/or manufacture of similar and related technological outcomes

Find examples of where malfunction has lead to subsequent enhancement / modification of the outcome and/or similar outcome. e.g. baby buggy.

Give students an example of a badly designed outcome and a well designed outcome – for example, baby buggies –and identify the differences.

Teachers sourced examples of ‘technological outcomes that have malfunctioned.

Teacher-led discussion about why these technological outcomes might have malfunctioned.

Students in groups discuss how such malfunctions could have been prevented.

Justify how the design elements appear to have been prioritised in technological outcomes.

Prioritisation of design elements.

Look at the iPhone family and identify the design elements specific to each model and how the models differ in function. Which design elements were prioritised for each model and why. Source images of the iPhone family. Devise a matrix that allows a clear comparison to be shown between the individual products.

Justify the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes in terms of their physical and functional nature and socio- technological environment/s they are used within

Students research a technological outcome that they are familiar with in order to justify it as being fit for purpose in terms of its physical and functional nature and socio-technological environment where it is used.

Students present justifications/ arguments in a seminar presentation to the class.

Level eight

Achievement objective

Students will:

Understand how technological outcomes can be interpreted and justified as fit for purpose in their historical, cultural, social, and geographical locations.

Teacher guidance

To support students to develop understanding of characteristics of technological outcomes at level 8, teachers could:

  • provide students with opportunity to extend their understanding of fitness for purpose. This extended notion is called "fitness for purpose in its broadest sense" and refers to the "fitness" of the outcome itself as well as the practices used to develop the outcome (e.g. such things as the sustainability of resources used, ethical nature of testing practices, cultural appropriateness of trialing procedures, determination of lifecycle and ultimate disposal)
  • support students to explore the implications of a commitment to developing technological outcomes that are fit for purpose in the broadest sense on the design, development and manufacturing of technological outcomes
  • support students to critically analyse a range of technological outcomes to evaluate their fitness for purpose, in its broadest sense. The evaluation will be based on the physical and functional nature of the outcome, the historical, cultural, social, and geographical location of the final outcome as well as its development, and any information available regarding its performance over time
  • support students to explore possible benefits and disadvantages of employing the notion of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense in different contexts related to the design and development, manufacture, evaluation and analysis of technological outcomes.

Indicators

Students can:

  • discuss the implications of viewing fitness for purpose in its broadest sense on the design and development of technological outcomes
  • discuss the implications of viewing fitness for purpose in its broadest sense on the manufacture of technological outcomes
  • justify the fitness for purpose, in its broadest sense, of technological outcomes
  • debate the value of employing the notion of ‘fitness for purpose in its broadest sense’ as related to: the design and development, manufacture, evaluation and analysis of technological outcomes.

Strategies for engaging students

Indicators Teaching Strategy & explanation
Discuss the implications of viewing fitness for purpose in its broadest sense on the design and development of technological outcomes

Develop criteria for evaluating fitness for purpose of a technological outcome the students are familiar with.

Either individually or collaboratively develop criteria for evaluating fitness for purpose that includes the physical and functional nature of the outcome as well as such things as:

• the sustainability of resources used

• the ethical nature of testing practices

• the cultural appropriateness of trialing procedures

• the determination of lifecycle and ultimate disposal.

Test their criteria against the technological outcome.

View/listen to an engaging video/talk/guest speaker justify the fitness for purpose of a technological outcome they have developed, for example, 7 of the Best Promotional Product Videos Ever

Students evaluate the justifications provided against the criteria they have developed above.

Discuss the implications of viewing fitness for purpose in its broadest sense on the manufacture of technological outcomes

View/listen to an engaging video/talk/guest speaker justify the fitness for purpose of a technological outcome they have developed that has gone on to be manufactured.

Students evaluate the justifications provided by the technologist and discuss/debate with them the implications considered prior to and post the outcome being manufactured and released on the market.

Justify the fitness for purpose, in its broadest sense, of technological outcomes

Students presenting justifications for the fitness for purpose, in its broadest sense, of a technological outcome they have developed.

Students present justifications/ arguments in a presentation to the class.

Debate the value of employing the notion of ‘fitness for purpose in its broadest sense’ as related to: the design and development, manufacture, evaluation and analysis of technological outcomes.

Discuss examples where describing a technological outcome as fit for purpose in its broadest sense’ is not appropriate.

Students explore examples where technological outcomes during its development phase can be justified as fit for purpose but in situ it has proven not to be the case.

Students debate how this situation could have been avoided.

Indicators of Progression – Characteristics of technological outcomes (Word 2007, 133 KB)

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by strand) – pdf file, 340kb

Indicators of Progression: Complete set (A3, by level) – pdf file, 319kb

Progression diagram – Characteristics of technological outcomes (PDF, 166 KB)

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