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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore tō tātou waka e ū ki uta

Element 4 Aspect 3: Teaching Practice


Teacher Education – Pre-service
Element 4
Aspect 3: Teaching Practice

To understand how to deliver effective technology education.

Aspect Purpose
 To help student teachers recognise the importance of context specific knowledge and skills, offers the opportunity to experience technology in action and understand good practice in technology.

Key Words
 Context specific knowledge and skills, good practice, delivery.


Book Review

Title: Performance Portfolios… Problems, Potentials and Policy

Reference: Kimbell R, (2009), Performance portfolios… problems, potentials and policy, in A.T Jones and M.J de Vries (eds), International Handbook of Research and Development in Technology Education, Rotterdam. Sense Publishers. Section Chapter 42 Pg 509

Review Statement

In this chapter Kimbell explores the nature of performance assessment in technology and specifically the nature of portfolios that typically act as a basis for assessment. He questions the current practice in the United Kingdom and describes common failings, as determined though a series of research projects from Goldsmith University of London. He then goes on to describe what he terms as the transformation of portfolios from "a pretty end-product" of real time e-portfolios which he describes as "the 'trace left behind' by purposeful activity". Embracing new technology to create e-portfolios does not change the ethical or conceptual purpose of the portfolio but does have the potential to transform the assessment of technology, in that a digital format enables the capture and valuing of capability.

Commentary: In my opinion his chapter introduces some common concerns about assessment in technology and offers a solution that has the potential to become common practice especially if NZQA and or the Ministry of Education introduce e-portfolio as an assessment tool for the NCEA. I found the middle section of this paper a little complex and of lesser relevance to those interested in finding out about e-portfolios. I wouldn't use the chapter as a reading as a whole but certainly there are aspects around assessment practice and the use of portfolios that are worth exploring.

Keywords: Assessment, portfolio, e-portfolio.

Reviewed by: Wendy Fox-Turnbull.

Book Review

Title: Mawson, B. (2002). Developing technology in early childhood settings. Early Education, 29 (Winter), 11-16.

The paper focuses on recognising and enhancing technological learning opportunities in early childhood. Two complementary approaches to learning in technology in ECE are discussed. A resource based approach supports spontaneous learning, this paper discusses how important teacher understandings and resources are to support children's emerging interests. A more structured approach explores a project approach, for example creating a worm farm. This approach explores a more in-depth line, which follows children's developing interests. The paper identifies how important the provision of differing resources are for children's learning; teachers own understandings to enhance technological literacy and how children's technological interests can be developed over longer periods of time. A very useful list of implementation strategies is also provided. This is a very useful and informative reading that should assist early childhood teachers to recognise technological learning in an early childhood learning environment.

Keywords: resource based approach, structured approach.

Reviewer: Moira Patterson.

Journal Article

Title: Knowledge types in technology

Reference: Ropohl, G. (1997). Knowledge types in technology. International Journal of Technology and Design Education 7, 65-72

Review statement: This paper explores different types of technological knowledge. Of particular interest is a section that discusses the acquisition of intrinsic experiential tacit knowledge and the problems associated with acquiring this type of knowledge in technology education.

Reviewer: Moira Patterson

Keywords: intrinsic, extrinsic knowledge, tacit knowledge

Journal Article

Title: Enhancing Technological Practice: An Assessment Framework for Technology Education in New Zealand.

Reference: Compton, V.J. and Harwood, C.D. (2003) Enhancing Technological Practice: An assessment framework for technology education in New Zealand. International Journal of Design and Technology Education Vol 13, #1, 1-26. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B%3AITDE.0000039567.67842.c3

Review Statement:
 This paper provides a valuable insight into the development of technological literacy in students and describes the Technology Assessment Framework (TAF) tool developed to provide guidance for teachers developing and delivering technology programmes. Although these developments took place from 1999 to 2000 the work is of value and provides background understandings which underpin much of what is practiced today.
Keywords: Sociocultural Theory; Technological Literacy; Technology Assessment Framework (TAF); Technological Practice.

Reviewed by: Bruce Granshaw

Book Review

Title: Design and Technology: Inside the Black Box
Reference: Moreland, J., Alister Jones, A., and Barlex, D. (2008), Design and Technology: Inside the Black Box, The Black Box Assessment for Learning Series
 Editors: Paul Black, Christine Harrison, Bethan Marshall and Dylan Wiliam, London: GL Assessment Group. ISBN 978 0 7087 1764 6
Review Statement:
 This book rests heavily on work from Black and Wiliam's work reported in their book Inside the Black Box and subsequent work by the GL Assessment Reform Group. It works on the premise that assessment should promote students learning. The booklet offers advice on how to interact with students effectively to promote their learning. The specific aim of the book is the improvement of learning in technology.

Keywords: Formative Assessment, promoting learning, classroom dialogue, feedback, peer and self assessment
Reviewed by: Wendy Fox-Turnbull

Book Review(s)



Unlocking Formative Assessment


Enriching Feedback in the Primary Classroom


Formative Assessment in Action: Weaving the Elements Together




Clarke, S., Timperley, H. & Hattie, J. (2003), Unlocking Formative Assessment, Auckland: Hodder Moa Beckett


Clarke, S., (2003), Enriching Feedback in the Primary Classroom, Abingdon: Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0 340 87258 6


Clarke, S., (2005), Formative Assessment in Action: Weaving the Elements Together, Abingdon: Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0 340 90782 7


Review Statement:
 These three books by Clarke introduce formative assessment in the primary classroom. In the first she has worked with Timperley and Hattie to introduce the concept of articulating intended learning to students and co-constructing success criteria within the New Zealand context. Books 2 and 3 are written for the UK context but still offer valuable ideas on the identification of context free learning and the giving of direct feedback related to that learning. All three books are a valuable resource when students are trying to identify the key technological components within any given activity.
 For example; Students undertaking Technological Practice may be required to develop a mock-up of a designed potato peeler. Intended learning in a context muddled learning intention might state "We are learning to mock-up our potato peeler to critique our design ideas." Clarke suggests that by removing the 'potato peeler' from the learning intention (NOT from the activity) we are left with technological learning. "We are learning to develop a mock-up to enable us to critique our design ideas", context -Potato Peelers. This clarifies the purpose of the learning in technological knowledge - modelling and better equips students and teachers to assess learning formatively and identify next step learning.
 The understandings introduced in these books are supported with the 'Context Free Learning Intentions Activity and the unit planning format situated in this Element, Aspect 1

Keywords: Formative assessment, feedback, learning intentions, context free learning, success criteria

Reviewed by: Wendy Fox-Turnbull

Case Study

Title: Classroom Practice: Teaching Practice
Reference: https://technology.tki.org.nz/Resources/Case-studies/Classroom-practice-case-studies/Teaching-practice
Review Statement: The case studies provide easy access to quality practice in technology education. They enable and encourage teachers to reflect on and evaluate their own practice and support the achievement of high quality outcomes for a greater range of technology students.
Key phrases: quality practice, reflect, evaluate, high quality outcomes


Title:Teaching Snapshots
Reference: https://technology.tki.org.nz/Resources/Teaching-snapshots 
Review Statement: This section on the Technology Online website provides insights on teacher strategies for delivering a particular aspect of the Technology curriculum, activities which have engaged student interest, resources used in the classroom, interaction with the wider community, and promotion of Technology education/subject areas.
Key phrases: teacher strategies, engaged student interest, resources, interaction with the wider community, promotion of Technology education

Journal Article

Title: The Influences of Teacher Knowledge and Authentic Formative Assessment on Student Learning in Technology Education

Reference: Fox-Turnbull, W. (2006) The Influences of Teacher Knowledge and Authentic Formative Assessment on Student Learning in Technology Education. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 16(1), 53-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10798-005-2109-1.

Review Statement: This paper can be used with student teachers to help them to understand that their technology content and pedagogical knowledge impacts directly on their students' learning.

The article outlines an investigation of the role of teacher knowledge and authentic formative assessment on student learning in technology education. It also investigates the context of assessment and its relationship to achievement and the importance of teacher knowledge to student Technological Practice. The author argues that 'out of context' assessment tasks do not give an accurate indication of achievement levels of the children assessed. Introduced is the Model of Student Technological Practice, which identifies four constraints that influence student Technological Practice. A significant factor is teacher knowledge, as it impacts greatly on the quality of feedback given to students by their teachers. Timely teacher intervention and formative assessment feedback will alter student Technological Practice and should improve the students' likelihood of developing successful outcomes.

Key Words: technology education, authentic assessment, Technological Practice, student Technological Practice

Reviewed by: Wendy Fox-Turnbull


Title: Assessment

Purpose: To help teachers understand assessment practices that enhances the learning process and outcomes for students.


Working in groups review the diagrams on the page above and use them to critique a student showcase which includes their workbook.

  • Pick a component of practice and map it against the student's work.
  • Identify levels of performance from the work presented using the progression diagrams.
  • What were the key indicators that told you that this student was working at this level?
  • Consider a where to next to enhance the student's performance and lift their level of achievement.
  • What kind of work could the student present to meet your expectations?
  • How would you feedback to and support a student who was not meeting the level expected?
  • Write a summative parent report comment on this child's achievement within this component.

Written by: Wendy Fox-Turnbull and Gary O'Sullivan


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