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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore tō tātou waka e ū ki uta

Element 3 Aspect 3: Policy and Practice

  Teacher Education – Pre-service

Element 3

Aspect 3: Policy and Practice
Situates technology in the NZC.

Aspect Purpose
To support student teachers to understand the relationship between technology and the broader NZC.

Key Words: relationship, technology, broader NZC



Harwood, C. (2003) The Evolution of Technology Education in the New Zealand Curriculum. Paper presented to NZGTTA AGM 2003.

This paper traces the evolution of technology education, mainly in middle to senior secondary schools (years 7–13), from its entirely skills-based structure at the turn of the century to the present day.

The paper looks at three distinct phases of development:

  • pre-1975
  • 1975–1995
  • 1995–2003.

The paper discusses how and why technology education has moved away from solely the development of practical products and arrived at a place where its socio-cultural underpinnings provide focus on the development of student technological literacy. It also considers the development of successful, high-quality Technological Outcomes, which are measured against the needs of community stakeholders rather than predefined teacher criteria.

The paper concludes by noting that students need to not only be able to function in today's technological society but be active, critical, and contributory participants.

Keywords: Technological Literacy; Socio-cultural; Technological Outcomes

Reviewed by Bruce Granshaw

Book Chapter

Jones vries international handbook 2860

Jones, A.T., The Development of Technology Education Internationally. In A.T. Jones and M.J de Vries. (2009). International Handbook of Technology Education. Sense Publishers. Rotterdam.

This paper briefly outlines the chapters within the International Handbook of Technology Education, (2009) which describes the development of technology education in Europe, Australasia, USA, South Africa, China, and India over the last two decades (and, in some cases, further back). These developments, discussed from the individual countries' perspectives, are influenced by historical, cultural and political environments.

Keywords: Curriculum Development; Social, Political, Cultural Influences

Reviewed by Bruce Granshaw.

Book Chapter

Jones, A., (2006).The Developing Field of Technology Education in New Zealand; The Last Twenty Years. Chapter 15. Retrieved from: http://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/handle/10289/6997.

This chapter traces the development of compulsory technology education in New Zealand over the last twenty years. It includes a time line of major developments up to its publication date and also discusses the research which informed the subject. There is a significant section on the development of the technology curriculum through the 1990s. The chapter discusses curriculum development, research, and teacher education and the interconnected nature of these.

Keywords: Curriculum Development, Teacher Education

Reviewed by Bruce Granshaw.

Book Review

Ferguson development of technology education 2846

Development of Technology Education in New Zealand Schools 1985 - 2008

Review Statement
This comprehensive paper provides an overview of how technology education has developed in New Zealand from the 1980's to late 2008. It covers all significant initiatives leading to the development of the understanding that students need to acquire a broad and deep technological literacy through studying technology education as an essential learning area. Curriculum development and implementation is described and discussed as are the issues facing technology teachers today. The roles of agencies which support technology education are also described.

Ferguson D. (2008). Development of Technology Education in New Zealand Schools 1985 – 2008. Ministry of Education. Wellington. New Zealand.
ISBN 978-0-478-34193-5

Keywords: Technology Education, Curriculum Development, Implementation, Historical and Current Views, Future Developments

Reviewed by Bruce Granshaw.

Journal Article

"Yep – We Can Do That: Technological response to the curriculum 'needs' arising ... "

Review Statement
This paper examines the implications arising as a result of the introduction of New Zealand Curriculum (2007) as a compulsory school curriculum. It discusses the "givens" within it, and connects these to pedagogy and innovative practice which can underpin technology education as defined in the technology essential learning area. The paper contains illustrative examples of technology education taking place in schools and concludes by recognising potential issues raised by technology education, curriculum development and implementation.

Compton, V, J. (2009). "Yep – we can do that: Technological response to the curriculum 'needs' arising ... " Design and Technology: An International Journal. 14(1), 21-35. ojs.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/DATE/article/view/198.

Keywords: Curriculum Implementation, Innovative Practice, Values Education, Illustrative examples of Practice

Reviewed by Bruce Granshaw.

Journal Article

"New Zealand Teachers' Experience in Implementing the Technology Curriculum"

Review Statement 
This paper describes the findings of a national study of teachers' experiences in implementing the Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum (1995). It is part of a larger national study across all learning areas (National Schools Sampling Study) which considers the effectiveness of curriculum developments in practice. It provides valuable insight into issues faced by technology teachers when involved with major curriculum development and offers views on future aspects of technology local curriculum development.

Jones, A. T., Harlow, A., & Cowie, B. (2004) New Zealand Teachers' Experience in Implementing the Technology Curriculum. International Journal of Technology and Design Education Volume 14, Number 2, 101-119, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B%3AITDE.0000026549.08795.9e.

Keywords: Curriculum Development; Curriculum Implementation; Teacher Experiences

Reviewed by: Bruce Granshaw.

Conference Paper

"Moving from Technical to Technology Education: Why it's so Hard!!"

Review Statement:
This paper discusses the issues which face technical teachers who are now required to teach technology. It considers the ideologies and learning theories which support both technical and technology education, and provides suggestions for moving teachers forward in their understandings of technology education. It provides a valuable overview of the development stages and issues affecting Technical Education prior to 1975 through to present day (2007) Technology Education.

Harwood, C.D., & Compton V.J. (2007). Moving from technical to technology education. Why is it so hard? Paper presented at Technology Education New Zealand, Biannual conference, Auckland 3-5 Oct, 2007. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/229036359_MOVING_FROM_TECHNICAL_TO_TECHNOLOGY_EDUCATION_WHY_IT'S_SO_HARD!!.

Keywords: Technical Education, Technology Education, Curriculum Development, Underpinning Ideologies; Implications for Pedagogy.

Reviewed by Bruce Granshaw.

Journal Article

Davies, J. (2008). "Revising the national technology curriculum through action research: practical and political action in New Zealand". Design and Education: An International Journal 10, 3.

Review statement
This reading provides another perspective regarding the political issues surrounding the development of technology in the New Zealand Curriculum (2007). It critically examines the way in which the curriculum was developed and considers the political ramifications.

E3a3 davies 2008 revising the national technology curriculum through action research 2889 (PDF, 390 KB)

Key words: Technology, New Zealand Curriculum (2007), politics, political ramifications

Reviewed by Moira Patterson.


Ministry of Education (2008) Te Marautanga o Aotearoa. Wellington: Learning media.

Review Statement
Te Marautanga o Aotearoa is the partner document of The New Zealand Curriculum. This curriculum has been developed for Māori medium settings.

This document can be accessed on TKI at http://tmoa.tki.org.nz/Te-Marautanga-o-Aotearoa. It is not a translation of The New Zealand Curriculum and was developed based on Māori philosophies and principles.

The HANGARAU curriculum is the Māori medium equivalent to the Technology learning area. This curriculum has a similar philosophical approach to Technology to technology education but has a different focus on the Māori world. Students are asked to focus on the values, skills and knowledge of the Māori world, as well as those modelled by Māori ancestors. Learning experiences in Hangarau should authenticate Māori knowledge and skills within a global society.

The curriculum is also structured differently into two strands Concepts of Technology and Technological Practice and identifies five technological areas:

  • Food Technology
  • Biotechnology
  • Structures and Mechanisms
  • Information Transfer
  • Electronics and Control Technology.

The English translation of this document provides all teachers with information regarding the purpose of Hangarau.

Key words: Te Marautanga o Aotearoa, Hangarau, Māori, strands Concepts of Technology, Technological Practice

Reviewed by Moira Patterson.

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