Computational thinking for digital technologies: Progress outcomes, exemplars, and snapshots
CTDT: Progress outcome 5
Within authentic contexts and taking account of end-users, students independently decompose problems into algorithms. They use these algorithms to create programs with:
- selection using:
- comparative and logical operators
- variables of different data types.
Students determine when to use different types of control structures. They document their programs, using an organised approach for testing and debugging. They understand how computers store more complex types of data using binary digits, and they develop programs considering human-computer interaction (HCI) heuristics (practical method or shortcuts that yield solutions sufficient for either a limited timeframe or a deadline).
Exemplar thirteen: Programming in Swift Playgrounds
Exemplar fourteen: 24-bit colour calculations
Exemplar fifteen: Mixing colours
Exemplar sixteen: Pirate Game
The diagram above shows the alignment between levels 1–5 of the New Zealand Curriculum and the progress outcomes for computational thinking. The uneven spacing of the progress outcomes reflects the different learning and time required for each outcome and is based on data collected during the development of the digital learning progressions.
Progress outcomes 6–8 set out the learning expected for students engaging in more intensive and specialised digital technologies programmes for NCEA 1, 2 and 3. For this reason, they are directly aligned with levels 6–8 of the curriculum.
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The progress outcomes for years 1–10 are illustrated by exemplars that show the breadth of students' expertise at that point on the learning progression.
Each exemplar has four parts:
- annotation – highlights how the student draws on their digital technological knowledge and skills in order to respond to the task
- background to the learning task
- the learning task
- the student's response – comprise work samples and/or transcripts of the interactions between the student and the teacher or between the student and their peers.
The exemplars also highlight links to the key competencies and literacy and numeracy.
A snapshot of the students' expertise at each point in the learning progression is used to illustrate the progress outcomes from years 11 to 13.
Snapshots provide insight into a student's thinking and illustrate their conceptual understanding. Each snapshot comprises a brief description of the learning task and a few insights into what the student knows and can do as they work on the task.
As students apply their understanding to components of the learning task, the "insights" in the snapshots display their thinking and demonstrate the level of sophistication of their actions.
The snapshots are neither assessment tasks and nor a full description of students' responses to the kind of specialist, complex learning tasks that should form a typical digital technologies learning programme in years 11–13.
Find out more
In December 2017, the technology learning area was revised to strengthen digital technologies in The New Zealand Curriculum. The goal of this is to ensure all learners have the opportunity to become digitally capable individuals. The paper below describes the development of the revised curriculum content. It includes details on the approach, expertise used (curriculum and subject matter experts), and the research underpinning the revision.
- Download the paper:
The New Zealand Curriculum Online
Read more about the new technology curriculum content here: Digital technologies in The New Zealand Curriculum.