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Ministry of Education.
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Computational thinking for digital technologies exemplars

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Progress outcome 4

In authentic contexts and taking account of end-users, students decompose problems to create simple algorithms using the three building blocks of programing: sequence, selection, and iteration. They implement these algorithms by creating programs that use inputs, outputs, sequence, basic selection using comparative operators, and iteration. They debug simple algorithms and programs by identifying when things go wrong with their instructions and correcting them, and they are able to explain why things went wrong and how they fixed them.

Students understand that digital devices represent data with binary digits and have ways of detecting errors in data storage and transmission. They evaluate the efficiency of algorithms, recognising that computers need to search and sort large amounts of data. They also evaluate user interfaces in relation to their efficiency and usability.

Student playing with drum.

Progress outcomes 

The progress outcomes describe the significant learning steps that students take as they develop their expertise in computational thinking for digital technologies.

The diagram above shows the alignment between levels 1–5 of the New Zealand Curriculum and the progress outcomes for computational thinking. The uneven spacing of the progress outcomes reflects the different learning and time required for each outcome and is based on data collected during the development of the digital learning progressions.

Progress outcomes 6–8 set out the learning expected for students engaging in more intensive and specialised digital technologies programmes for NCEA 1, 2 and 3. For this reason, they are directly aligned with levels 6–8 of the curriculum.


The exemplars above illustrate the teaching and learning for CT progress outcomes 1–5 (levels 1–5). Exemplars for levels 6–8 will be available early 2018.

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