Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:

Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore to tātou waka e ū ki uta

Ask an expert

You can search for questions and answers by using keywords and/or refine your search by selecting from the options below. 

There are 140 results.

  • Question

    For the Achievement standard 91633, can you suggest some programs that can be used on a Mac that would allow students to gain excellence? I have been told that Mac programs give templates so the students can't achieve the standard. I was sure this couldn't be right.


    File Maker Pro for MAC can be used over the course – the students could do some work in PHP/MySQL using MAMP, which is free.

    File Maker Pro does provide some templates, but there is a huge amount of work to be done “behind the scenes”. Students can create all their own custom layouts, scripts, button events, and so on.

  • Question

    Please explain why functional modelling and prototyping are both needed to support decision making when developing an outcome.


    Functional modelling is the process of checking out design concepts/ideas to see if they are suitable for developing into an actual outcome.

    Functional models are always representations, not the actual thing. They could be, for example, a sketch, a pattern or plan, a cardboard model, a CAD drawing, or even a mental picture. They may be of the whole outcome, or just a part (for example, how two sections of the proposed outcome are to be joined).

    A prototype is the first complete version of an outcome – the realisation of concepts/ideas that have earlier been developed through functional modelling. It is full-sized, made of the selected materials, and painted or finished as required. The prototype can be assessed against the brief: does it have all the specified attributes, does it work as required, is it fit for purpose?

    If the outcome is a “one-off”, then the prototype is “it” – the student evaluates the outcome and the technological practice used to produce it; this evaluation becomes part of their ongoing learning. If the prototype is the first of a number of same or similar outcomes, the evaluation will likely to lead to modifications.

    So functional modelling and prototyping have quite different purposes, but both come under the technological modelling component of the curriculum. See the Indicators of Progression for useful suggestions on how you could teach your students about functional modelling and prototyping.

    The following resources on Technology Online may also be useful:

    Discovering what functional modelling is – and why it’s so important

    Top scholar technology 2013: Robotic window cleaner

  • Question

    I am teaching year 13 Food Technology and looking for information on AS 91643. Is there a teaching resource for complex procedures? How is it best to break down this teaching and learning ?


    It’s an assessment resource, not a teaching resource, but the internal assessment resource for AS 91643 should give you a clear idea about the teaching required.

    Note that the emphasis in all the “implement procedures” standards is on technology in a commercial environment, where the viability of a product can be determined by the ability to make it consistently to exacting specifications and then sell it at a profit. So quality control and the efficient use of time and resources are extremely important.

    According to the standard, “complex procedures are those that require a diverse range of processing operations to be performed in a particular order based on knowledge of techniques, operations, and testing feedback”. EN 2 provides very good guidance on what complex procedures encompass and the bulleted points could be used as a basis for planning your teaching programme.

    While cream puffs are used as an example in the internal assessment resource, you can choose (or let your students choose) any other food product as long as the specifications are of sufficient rigour (EN 5).

    The internal assessment resource contains useful guidance on what “skillfully” (Merit) and “efficiently” (Excellence) might look like.

  • Question

    I have been looking to change the course I offer at Level 1 and found AS 91096, which seemed promising, but focuses on pattern making for fabric only. Why such a narrow focus? Are the experts not aware that pattern making is widely used in the metal fabrication and air-conditioning industries? Could this be changed in the future?


    When AS 91096 was being created, the writers decided after a lot of discussion to restrict its application to textiles (EN#4).

    Could this be changed in the future?

    The processes, techniques, and tools involved in creating a pattern for a sheet metal product or a moulding are so substantially different that it is doubtful if broadening the scope of AS 91096 could cover them off, and there are currently no plans to introduce further technology achievement standards.

    At some stage in the future there will no doubt be a review and changes, but even then, it is unlikely that the Ministry of Education (as owner of the achievement standards) will want to go too far down the path of duplicating industry-focused standards. Technology already has a vast array of standards – far more than any other learning area.

    Having said this, have you considered assessing aspects of the pattern-making process using one of the generic standards, for example, AS 91047 Undertake development to make a prototype to address a brief or AS 91046 Use design ideas to produce a conceptual design for an outcome to address a brief? Between them, they provide for a very wide range of possible teaching contexts.

  • Question

    I would like clarification on the following standard if possible: AS 91608 Undertake brief development to address an issue within a determined context. Under explanatory Notes 2, the standard states: "... within a determined context involves ... Establishing an issue and identifying related context considerations ... Explaining the context considerations as related to an established issue" Could you clarify what each of these bullet points mean? They look a bit like the same thing but said in different ways. What should you see in the student's work for each of these bullet points? The students are working on a project in the context of formal wear and several students wish to make a ball gown.


    Statements such as "S needs a ball dress” or "S wants something unique to go to the ball” seem more like needs or opportunities, rather than issues. To ensure the depth and breadth of practice required at this level, it might be better for students to be establishing issues such as "uniqueness" within a context of school balls/formal occasions. 

    At curriculum level 8, students will generally be establishing an issue (and thus context) that is relevant to them as an individual. 
From the beginning of their practice, students should be showing in-depth consideration for social and physical environmental factors related to their context.

    For a school ball/formal occasion, this might include things such as dress code, current fashions, activities at the event (for example, dancing, eating), month and time of the event, personal culture, and so on.
 A need for one student (within the issue of uniqueness) may be to stand out at the school ball, but also to have an outfit that can be worn at future occasions.

    At curriculum level 8 it is not always the best approach to allow the outcome to drive the practice. That is, a student who wants to make a particular ball dress may find it very difficult to undertake brief development as required at this level. 
The final brief must allow judgement of the outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. This relates to the outcome itself as well as the practices used to develop the outcome. This requires ongoing consideration of the context.

    At this level, when students are working on a project in which they are making a ball gown, it could be considered whether it would be better to focus on the skills that students develop (rather than on the brief development process). That is, instead they could be assessed against achievement standards such as:

    • AS 90621 (Implement complex procedures using textiles materials to make a specified product)
    • AS 91350 (Make advanced adaptions to a pattern to change the structural and style features of a design)
    • AS 91623 (Implement complex procedures to create an applied design for a specified product).
  • Question

    I have heard of an approach to teaching level 3 generic standards that I wanted to clarify. This is for: AS91608 3.1 Brief; AS91609 3.2 Planning; AS91610 3.3 Conceptual Design; and AS91622 3.4 Prototype. The approach is to complete all four standards in term one so students gain achieved. Then for Term two, three, and what's left of four, work towards merit and excellence for all four standards. Is this allowed?


    As a general guide, it is expected that each NCEA credit requires 10 hours of teaching and learning time. Trying to assess all these four achievement standards (20 credits) in one term would therefore be too much. At level 3 NCEA (level 8 of the curriculum), it can take a whole year for students to show the depth of practice required at excellence level for this set of standards.

    The aim of technology as a learning area is for students to develop broad technological knowledge, practices, and dispositions that will equip them to participate in society as informed citizens and provide a platform for technology-related careers. To achieve this, students should be participating in a cohesive programme of learning across all three strands (Technological Practice, Technological Knowledge, Nature of Technology). This approach is also essential for students to have success in Technology Scholarship.

    Teachers who listen to their students and guide them to address an issue that is engaging for them will generally see high-quality evidence being produced. Depending on the project that students undertake, a manageable number of appropriate achievement standards should be selected for assessment purposes.

  • Question

    I have just a quick question on AS91620 Implement complex procedures to integrate parts using resistant materials to make a specified product. (Level 3) When using wood/plastics, what sorts of procedures are classed as "complex"? What is meant by "integrate parts"?


    Complex procedures require the student to select and use a variety of techniques for the precise integration of parts. The product the student makes needs to provide opportunity for this to occur. The resource called A Power Tower is a good starting point and provides an example in wood.

    As per Explanatory Note 2 of the standard, implementing complex procedures to integrate parts for products such as a ladder or sprinkler could include:

    • preparation of parts for integration (preparing all parts of the ladder or sprinkler to tolerance before it is put together)
    • preparation of the integration environment (making a jig to ensure the ladder is perfectly square and straight; preparing a clean assembly environment with the equipment needed to accurately assemble the product)
    • integrating parts to ensure product meets specifications (putting it together)
    • ongoing testing against reference points to reduce error in the integration of parts (using the jig and checking for tolerances at each stage of assembly).

    Radio controlled boats could also provide a platform for this standard in plastics. The expectation would be coverage of a range of techniques in the discipline of plastics forming, for example:

    • vacuum forming, including material properties affecting form and making plugs to suit assembly tolerances
    • heat strip bending, including allowances for distortion, wall thickness, temp settings
    • protocols relating to adhesives, including initial tack and setting times (adhesive selection and application should take into account the performance required of the adhesive in the outcome, for example, load, exposure to high temperature, water)
    • mechanical fixings, including material properties relating to drilling/cutting that affect alignment and relationship of parts.

    Radio Control would include many things to be integrated and require students to find such things as reference lines, centrelines, and datums or start positions for assembly alignment. Each part would need to be taken into account when assembling.

    It is likely that any plastics outcome would include materials other than just plastics. A sailing yacht without radio control may also offer the complexity required for this standard. 

    Additional products and possible associated examples are suggested in the following document:

    Ask an expert question and answer AS91620 (Word 2007, 6 MB)

  • Question

    I am just planning and looking at my Level 2 pattern adaptation AS 91350 Make advanced adaptations to a pattern to change the structural and style features of a design. Can you clarify for me if changing an A- Line skirt with a facing, and dart to a gathered skirt onto a fitted waistband has enough degree of difficulty and would be considered advanced enough for level 2? In addition, all of the other appropriate other documentation that goes with the standard would be provided.


    Pattern alterations such as gathering are generally not seen as advanced adaptations. However, if the student carried out the adaptations in a similar way to that outlined below, then this would be considered an advanced adaptation to a pattern.

    The student:

    • determined the degree of fullness required (They measured, slashed, and added width to the front and back skirt pattern pieces for gathering based on the placement required in the finished style. They marked the skirt pieces so they could be gathered evenly to match the notches on the waistband. When adapting the pattern pieces, they determined how much fullness to add when using a particular type of fabric.)
    • drafted a pattern piece for the waistband to the required finished length, height, fit, and waistband style. (The pattern piece indicated the placement of the gathering when attaching the skirt pieces to the waistband.)
  • Question

    Where can I find exemplars for AS91351 Implement advanced procedures to process a specified product? Thanks.


    NZQA manages the development of exemplars. The assessment schedule for the TKI assessment resource "Process a lemon meringue pie" provides examples of acceptable evidence for each grade. (The word file on the web page given below is titled "2.60 Food".) The teacher guidelines are also very useful in explaining requirements. See NCEA on TKI, Level 2 Technology assessment resources

  • Question

    In the standard 91633, complex procedures include: create queries to insert, update, or delete to modify data. If I use Access to assess this standard, would you please give me some examples of "inserting to modify data"? What kind of techniques are required in Access to do this?


    The standard requires students to create queries to retrieve and modify data not insert to modify data. 

    AS 91633 states the following at achieved.

    1. Implement complex procedures to develop a relational database embedded in a specified digital outcome involves:

    • creating queries to retrieve and modify data

    Explanatory note 6 includes the following statement.

    Complex procedures to develop a relational database include:

    • creating queries which insert, update or delete to modify data

    Because the word "or" is in the statement (insert, update, or delete to modify data) it is not the expectation that all are done. 

    An example of creating queries to modify data in Access is in the assessment schedule on TKI . The student has created relevant queries that combine data from multiple tables, which allow the user to retrieve and modify information for the situation. For example: The student has created a query to find a certain member and then edit the data; and a query to find all DVDs that are rated M. (Queries could also be created that show those members who are over or under a certain age.)

    Other examples could include the following:

    • creating queries which extract data from more than one table
    • running an update query or a delete query (For example, you may need to update the postal codes of the customers table or you may need to delete a certain item. These queries enable this to be done efficiently.)
    • running an append query (For example, you might need to add data to the customer table. You acquire a database that contains a table of new customers, and since you already have another table in your database that stores similar data, you would like to add those new customers to your table. Instead of copying the data from the acquired database into the table in your existing database, you could use an append query.) 

    Here are 2 links that help to explain update queries in Access for different versions:

    Access help: Create and run an update query (Access 2013)

    Access help: Change existing data by using an update query (Access 2003)

    Some providers are collecting data into an Excel spreadsheet and then running an update query to add this data into the database.

    If using A MySQL Database and PHP web pages, this can be done using PHP coding and the updating is done directly from the user input in the web page.

Return to top ^