Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:

Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore to tātou waka e ū ki uta

Ask an expert

You can search for questions and answers by using keywords and/or refine your search by selecting from the options below. 

There are 140 results.

  • Question

    I find when teaching year 9 and 10 food technology, we have a lot of paper work for the students: stakeholder forms; initial brief; concepts and specs; final brief and specs; multiple evaluations along the way. I was just wondering if there was a way I could reduce the paper work we provide the students, while still having them understand the key processes and applications they need to do to produce a quality outcome. Any ideas would be greatly appreciated.


    Depending on the aspect of the curriculum that is the focus at the time, teachers may use a range of strategies to make evidence gathering efficient and effective. This could include templates, flow charts, check lists, and annotated photos. When using these strategies, it is important that they are designed in such a way that they do not limit the student’s ability to provide full answers. The following teacher snapshot shows another innovative method: Using iCoach to record evidence in furniture making

  • Question

    I have been thinking about using Minecraft to better facilitate student exploration of architectural styles. I have a year 13 class and I am wondering whether there is a NZQA Achievement or Unit Standard I could offer them where they demonstrate their understanding of designing within a brief (where that brief reflects the constraints of a specific architectural style). Would AS91629 be a possible fit? Or perhaps AS91610?


    Depending on the approach taken, AS91610 Develop a conceptual design considering fitness for purpose in its broadest sense could be a suitable assessment tool for this project. Students would communicate a conceptual design for an outcome that has the potential to address a brief. Minecraft could be used in the process of describing how the outcome will look and function.  

    In technology, a brief describes how a desired outcome will meet an authentic need (that is, in the real world, not within a hypothetical scenario) or realise an authentic opportunity.

    The student work might also be able to be assessed against AS91628 Develop a visual presentation that exhibits a design outcome to an audience. This standard requires a starting point (a design outcome that the student then presents within an exhibition space). Students make informed designer decisions drawing on exhibition design knowledge, the needs of the audience, and the nature of the outcome.

    The design outcome could be the conceptual design developed for AS91610, or it could a spatial or product design developed for AS91629 Resolve a spatial design through graphics practice or AS91630 Resolve a product design through graphics practice.

    A critical aspect of these standards (91629 and 91630) is to show understanding of product design and/or spatial design knowledge, and this is defined in explanatory note 4 in each standard.

    The explanatory note for product design states the following. 

Product design knowledge includes elements of design approaches, technical knowledge, and visual communication techniques relevant to the specific product design context. These may include:

    • design tools used for the development of product design ideas (for example, market research, anthropometrics, ergonomes, mockups, and models)
    • technical knowledge of materials, joining, fitting, assembly, finish, fasteners, sustainability, and environmental considerations
    • product design visual communication techniques and approaches (for example, product design drawings and rendering, prototypes, models, and animation)."

    That is, students must show understanding of design approaches, technical knowledge, and visual communication techniques relevant to the specific design context. The explanatory note includes examples of possible elements.

    While it is common practice to assess several standards within one project, care must be taken to ensure all aspects of each standard are covered. This should be with sufficient rigour to reflect curriculum level 8.

  • Question

    Can you explain to me what students should consider in fitness for purpose in its broadest sense in a textiles context?


    Fitness for purpose in its broadest sense relates to the outcome itself as well as to the practices used to develop the outcome. Beyond ensuring that the outcome itself meets the requirements of the brief, some possible ways of addressing this notion are outlined below:

    If the fabric has a traceable label, the manufacturing processes used to produce it could be explored. Otherwise related understandings could be explored, for example, the amount of pesticides, water and/or energy used to produce that type of fabric. Dyeing processes may also be traceable or related understandings could be explored (for example, if fibre-reactive dyes were used for the fabric the student is working with, the impact of those dyes on waterways could be explored). Students could be seen to minimise waste by planning the use of resources as efficiently as possible, for example, planning layout to minimise material requirements. Design in terms of timelessness or recycling/up-cycling/further use might also be a consideration.

    • Practices used in manufacture

    Where the country of origin of the textile and notions is known, the textile and fashion industry working conditions of employees in that country could be explored. Where relevant, student garments should comply with legislation, for example, The Product Safety Standards (Children's Nightwear and Limited Daywear Having Reduced Fire Hazard) Regulations 2008. Intellectual property issues should also be considered – ensuring that students are not using the ideas of others without the permission or acknowledgement required in intellectual property laws. See: Intellectual Property Issues

    • Maintenance

    The type of cleaning processes required and their impact on the environment could be explored. This could include any regular or long term maintenance requirements, for example, reapplying waterproof coatings, sealing seams, replacing or repairing lining, zips, and so on. Where relevant, students should provide country of origin, care, and fibre content labeling for outcomes.

    • Determination of life cycle

    The lifecycle of all of the components of the garment, including the ultimate disposal (see below), could be considered. The Slow Fashion movement considers various factors attributed to garment lifecycle – see Not Just a Label, The Slow Fashion Movement.

    • Ultimate disposal

    The end life and its impact on the environment of all of the components in a garment could be considered. This might include the fibres, dyes, thread, and/or notions.

    • Ethical nature of testing practices

    Ensuring personal comfort and modesty during the trialing and modelling of finished garments might be a consideration. Where relevant, the age appropriateness of garments and dress standards should be considered.

    • Cultural appropriateness of trialing procedures

    Respect for cultural beliefs around behavior when trialling outcomes might need to be considered.

    • Health and safety

    Usual safety in the workroom should be considered. There may be extra requirements if, for example, students are dyeing using fibre-reactive dyes.

    It is also important that students ensure that the outcome is itself fit for purpose in the broadest sense. At curriculum level 8 students need to consider the outcomes technical and social acceptability. Some additional considerations at this level could include:

    • Ergonomics – ease of getting in and out of the garment, comfort, the ability to do things when wearing the garment
    • Usability – for example, not just for a party, but considering when/how else the garment will be used, across seasons, in alternative contexts
    • Ethics/cultural appropriatenes – for example, the wider social acceptability of applied designs where, for example, specific cultural imagery has been used such as religious, Māori, or Pasifika designs, or where possum fur is used in garments

    Observing and mimicking the technological practice of textile technologists may assist in ensuring the students are practicing in a manner that will ensure fit for purpose in its broadest sense of both the practice and the outcome itself.

    There is also a Team Solutions webcast on the concept of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense at Team solutions PLD, Technology, Fitness for purpose: in the broadest sense.

  • Question

    I am quite confused about how to run with AS91635 (3.43) Implement complex procedures to produce a specified digital media outcome. I have some students who want to create a website using HTML5 and CSS and are certainly capable while I have others who can't go down the coding pathway as it is not their strength. For the latter, can I get them to create a similar outcome (that is, a website) but using a WYSIWYG but their digital media is movie (Virtual Tour) with sound? Would this be rigour enough?


    Explanatory note four in AS 91635 gives examples of complex tools and techniques. Students do not have to integrate media from more than one application. They must, however, demonstrate the integration of more than one media type (for example, sound and imagery). 

    The movie with sound is acceptable as long as the video material meets the complex tools and techniques criteria. Creating a documentary could be considered complex skills if the student considers camera angles, media conventions, and so on, and the use of a range of complex tools and techniques to create the outcome. Sitting a camera on a tripod and doing some simple filming is not demonstrating complex skills. The video editing software used can be another opportunity to demonstrate complex skills.  

    Creating WYSIWYG Websites as a "holding pen" to store and promote the media outcomes created by the student is not considered complex and therefore should not be considered as one of their media outcomes but it does allow for the integration requirement to be met. 

    At level 3 the focus should be on level 8 of the curriculum.

    Simply creating a website using HTML5 and CSS is considered to be at curriculum level 7.  Examples for the step up to level 8 are noted in explanatory note four:

    Complex tools and techniques for web page design may include:

    • HyperText Markup Language / Cascading Style Sheets (HTML/CSS), scripting (manipulating content), dynamic data handling, interaction between user and content, multiple device outputs

    To clarify the meaning of dynamic web pages, dynamic web pages change their content based on what users do, such as clicking on some text or an image. If the information stored in the database changes, then the web page/s connected to the database change accordingly and automatically. Dynamic sites are great, for example, for image galleries, online calendars, or e-commerce.

    Here are some examples of how students could use a dynamic website:

    • Content Management System (CMS): to update information such as news, events, or products
    • E-commerce site: to take orders and so on online
    • Members’ database: manages information throughout the websites by using an administration interface, user logins, and so on
    • Deliver information to a wider audience, for example, data delivery using RSS
  • Question

    We have been teaching the generic standard for brief development across all levels at this school. I am confused as to whether or not the students should show functional modelling or concept designs at any level. As there is now a separate standard to assess students on their concepts, it seems strange that some exemplars are including designs and evaluations of designs. One of the older TKI resources for Brief has functional modelling in one of the tasks, but when we moderated last year on this standard, the moderator advised us that functional modelling should not be part of this assessment and it was not necessary for students to show any evidence of this. Please can you clarify – is functional modelling or concept design supposed to be included in AS91044 Undertake brief development to address a need or opportunity, AS 91354 Undertake brief development to address an issue, or AS91608 Undertake brief development to address an issue within a determined context?


    The technological practice components are closely woven together – brief development, planning for practice, and outcome development and evaluation all inform each other.

    Brief development is often running parallel to the development of an outcome where functional modelling and design concepts could be being created.

    It is not essential that functional modelling and conceptual design ideas are provided as evidence for a standard that assesses brief development. Therefore, students should not necessarily be penalised if these aspects are not part of their evidence. However, this evidence could give further details of the outcome that is required for brief development. For example, it could explain such things as how the student may have considered the environment, give further information on attributes and how these moved from attributes to specifications, and generally further information about the outcome.

  • Question

    Hi, I am a food technology teacher, currently teaching AS 91643. I can't quite figure out how to get all of the students work to come together for the HACCP plan, quality assurance, flow diagram, testing, and so on. Can these all be done separately or, for example, can the quality assurance and flow diagram be integrated?


    When using the process flow diagram symbols, QA and HACCP points are included automatically. Students can add as much detail as they want in the appropriate places.  For example, they could expand on HACCP beyond identifying the CCP (critical control points) by adding actions. This might be best as a column alongside the flow diagram if the students are using a process flow chart.

    Colour coding can work really well to indicate a health and safety issue at a process step. Students can, of course, add steps such as "put on safety gear" to the diagram as part of the manufacturing process.

    One thing to remember is that no matter what graphic format of diagram is used, it has to be useful when the students are processing. So there is a limit to how much information can be on the diagram before it becomes confusing when the student is making the product. While trying to get everything on one diagram looks impressive, there is a danger of it turning into just “something nice to look at”.  The processing flow diagram is a working document.

    There is more information about this standard in two other expert questions. Enter the standard number 91643 into the keyword search to view these questions and answers.

  • Question

    What is meant by "considering the context" when, for example, developing a textile item at Level 3? Are you able to give me some examples of what this might "look like"?


    Context refers to the wider social and physical environment in which the development of a technological outcome (for example, a textile garment) occurs and where it is finally located.

    In technology, the physical environment commonly refers to the location where the technological practice is undertaken to develop a technological outcome and where the final outcome will be located.

    For a textile outcome within a context of streetwear, this could include considering:

    • the activities that the streetwear might be worn for, for example, shopping, watching sport, walking
    • the place where the garment will be worn, for example, a rural village, Wellington High Street
    • the climatic conditions in the area the streetwear is mainly designed to be worn in, for example, indoor/outdoors, summer, winter
    • the differing maintenance expectations of streetwear, for example, domestic/commercially machine washable, hand washable, dry cleanable
    • the equipment and expertise available to the student for constructing the garment, for example, screen printing may have to be done commercially.

    For a textile item, the social environment could include considering:

    • the cultural expectations of the groups/organizations/events that streetwear will be worn in
    • the personal views of the wearer and wider stakeholders in terms of the appropriate style, colour, fit for streetwear
    • any beliefs they may have about styles or materials, for example, fur, natural fibres
    • fashion trends in streetwear, for example, national, global, contemporary, historical
    • the expected cost of streetwear garments

    Research findings around context need to be reflected in the student’s particular streetwear garment. For example, if the student finds out that one of the latest trends in streetwear is “clashing pattern pairings”, and the stakeholders agree they like this particular look, then the student needs to show that they have explored how this could be incorporated into the garment.

    Context considerations are often prioritised, and should be added to or amended throughout practice – technology is a field of on-going contestation and there will always be competing priorities.

  • Question

    My question is with regards to unit standard 112, version 6, level 3 (Produce business or organisational information using word processing functions). If students compose an e-mail, is that regarded as a "document"?


    It is not appropriate to regard an email as a document for the purposes of this standard.

    The general purpose of an email is for short, typically non-formal communications, not usually printed. A document, however, is normally formal, following text processing conventions or organisational style requirements, and is generally produced in a hard copy, printed format.

    Explanatory note 3 gives a list of possible types of documents that could be produced as part of the assessment activity. Six different types of documents are required and the suggestions are all level 3 appropriate, complex documents.

    Also, Evidence Requirement 1.1 gives the range of features that should be included as part of these six documents – and features in this range are unlikely to be effectively demonstrated in an email document. Other ranges in the standard also support the fact that email may not reflect the intent of the standard.

  • Question

    What will teachers need to teach within the technology curriculum? I am a primary teacher in years 7 and 8. I want the students to design a dunking biscuit that is tasty and takes a while to dissolve and to describe the process they need in steps. I was looking at the LO of a design process – using Kimbell’s APU model and Melanie Fasciato’s reading to develop a herring-bone graphic that records group and individual technological practice during the “Designed for Dunking” biscuit lab.


    At years 7 and 8 students should be achieving at levels 3–4 of the technology curriculum. However, it is also important to determine the student’s prior knowledge and take this into account when planning the level at which to target the teaching.

    The teacher guidance section in the indicators of progression in the curriculum documents provides guidance for teachers to support students to develop understandings. See the Indicators of Progression at What does progression in technology look like?

  • Question

    Please could you help with definitions and examples of manipulation transformation and formulation of materials ingredients for a products fittness for purpose in Food Technology. I am doing frozen milk products at year 9 and wanting to cover the Technological Knowledge, technological products component.


    To understand these concepts, students would require a well-developed understanding of the food chemistry of milk and the effect that processing has on its composition and structure, both from its raw state and as an ingredient within a food product. Developing this understanding may be beyond year 9 students. A focus on food generally would make the teaching and learning simpler.

    When teaching the knowledge strands, teachers are encouraged to look beyond the students technological practice to enhance student understandings.

    Within this component, materials can be considered as raw food ingredients (for example, cows milk) and also food products made from a combination of food ingredients (for example, ice cream).

    Forming refers to bringing two or more materials together
 to formulate a new material, resulting in a different overall composition and structure to that of the original materials. This results in different performance properties – for example, mixing flour, water, and salt to make dough. Any food product that used milk as an ingredient along with other ingredients would also be an example of forming.

    Manipulating materials refers to "working" existing materials in ways that do not change their properties because their composition and structure are not altered – for example, cutting, molding, bending, jointing, gluing, painting. Manipulation could be cutting biscuit shapes or icing (painting) biscuits, or even making a gingerbread house or mixing a sauce with some fresh cooked pasta. Cutting ice-cream and coating it to make an Eskimo Pie is another example of manipulation.  

    Transforming refers to changing the structure of the material to change some of its properties. But in terms of its composition, it remains the same material. Examples here include beating air into egg whites, turning cream into unsalted butter, frothing milk.

    A teaching snapshot with a focus on teaching these concepts has recently been published on Technology Online. See Technological products and outcomes in food technology.

Return to top ^