Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:

Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore to tātou waka e ū ki uta

Ask an expert

You can search for questions and answers by using keywords and/or refine your search by selecting from the options below. 

There are 137 results.

  • Question

    Can you advise how many units minimum have to be made for AS91056 (1.13) please? The multi-unit manufacturing standard.


    Students may have already produced a single technological outcome for a particular end user as part of another assessment. This could be used as a starting point for this assessment.

    It may not be necessary for students to manufacture large numbers of individual items.

    The intention of the standard is to assess whether the students can implement a manufacturing process that is beyond, for example, one tray of biscuits to a larger run that ensures consistency of the product (for example, if they made 1000 biscuits the specified process would result in all of the biscuits being uniform enough to meet the specifications).

    In some instances it will be possible to make a smaller number of the product to test the specified manufacturing process and then modify as necessary. For example, a system could be set up to manufacture cape cod chairs and manufacturing five chairs could provide sufficient information to refine the manufacturing process to ensure future consistency in the product. It is likely that the more stable the material and the simpler it is to control the stages of production the less numbers of product will need to be produced to establish an effective manufacturing system.

  • Question

    I have level 2 students working on AS91345 Implement advanced procedures using textile materials to make a specified product with special features this year and wanted to know if they were to make a skirt with two layers (lining and a chiffon layer) with gathers or pleats at the waist onto the waistband if french seams, rolled hems on the chiffon and the gathering and pleating would that be advanced enough?


    Explanatory Note 5 (EN5) states :Advanced procedures are those that require advanced skills and the student to select and perform techniques that need scheduling to achieve the special features.

    Explanatory Note 7 states: Special features are those that rely on the application of advanced skills.  These include but are not limited to: style features, such as set in sleeve, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pockets and/or decorative features such as pin tucking, embroidery, and shirring and/or structural features such as 3D felting and combining different fibres in felting and different materials, for example, nuno felting. 

    Inserting the two layers of the skirt into a waistband could be considered a special feature that would require scheduling (that is, the student would need to determine what order this should be done in order to achieve the special feature).

    Creating french seams and a rolled hem would not require scheduling (EN5), or the application of advanced skills as indicated by the examples given in Explanatory Note 7.

    However, if the student inserted an invisible zip into the chiffon lined skirt, then they would have implemented another advanced procedure.

  • Question

    I have a level 3 class doing AS91624 Demonstrate understanding of a structural system. The TKI example on timber-framed buildings directs you to the NZ building code 3604 and these are the current techniques used in New Zealand for NZ sourced timbers. My class are researching structures built with a global product that called ETFE (ethylene tetrafluroethylene) roofing material, which was used as the transparent, polymer roofing material at the new Forsythe Barr Stadium in Dunedin. The configuration of the roofing structure are customised for a particular span and height and not common knowledge as the code predominantly provides timber specs. Do you have any reference material that would explain the steel configurations required for large spanning structures? Because the EFTE polymer is a global material can it be considered as a current technique used in New Zealand?


    This standard is very broad in terms of possible contexts, but students must select structures for which detailed information can be obtained without too much difficulty. This information will need to include not only drawings and/or first-hand observations, but also why crucial design and engineering decisions were made.

    The AS is about understanding structures as systems – how they are designed to maintain their integrity given the various forces that impact on them. Students are not restricted to current techniques used in New Zealand (that is just part of the context setting in the assessment resource), or to New Zealand structures.

    The context used in the TKI assessment resource is the timber framed New Zealand house. This has the great advantage that local examples can almost certainly be found and examined first hand, and that many of the system requirements are detailed in the building code. Even so, as the AR suggests, students will need “access to visiting speakers such as architects, builders, and council building inspectors”. This is because it is not enough for them to second-guess why things are done the way they are – they need to understand the principles involved.

    The building code exists only to codify the principles by which a house can be soundly constructed using commonly available materials. As long as a house is built using these principles, there is no need to engage an engineer. For more elaborate structures (such as bridges, multi-storey buildings, or stadiums) there is no such code; engineers must use complex mathematics and physics, sophisticated modelling techniques, and highly detailed technical data to determine that a proposed design will not collapse as a result of either internal or external stresses/loads.

    So there is unlikely to be any off-the-shelf information of the kind that you are looking for. You could try contacting the engineering firm responsible for a local structure that uses ETFE and see if they have information that they are willing to share. You may also be able to arrange a site visit and a Q & A session with one or more of the engineers responsible.

    Note that for merit the AS requires the students to “evaluate the structural integrity of a structural system” and for excellence, to “discuss and justify possible ways of increasing the structural integrity of a structural system”. Both are quite big asks, so it is important to discourage students from selecting structures that are too complex or for which they will not be able to access all of the information they need.

  • Question

    AS91621 (3.21) Implement complex procedures using textile materials to make a specified product: What does managing the inclusion of structural or style features, for example, tucks, pockets, opening, closures, weather proof storage mean?


    Managing the inclusion of structural or style features means that complexity in the procedures for the textile product has been added as a result of where and how the feature will be included.  

    For example if pin tucks are to be added as a style feature the student could be:

    • ensuring they know how to do pin tucking, the choices available in machine equipment and stitches to do this
    • determining where the pin tucks will be applied to ensure they are aesthetically pleasing and flattering, how many pin tucks, the width of each pin tuck etc.
    • deciding the best stage of construction at which to apply the pin tucks. For example, in some instances the pin tucks may be applied to the fabric prior to cutting out the pattern pieces. In other instances the pin tucks will be accurately positioned to shape a garment.
  • Question

    Am I able to use (L2) AS 91356 Develop a Conceptual design to design for a hard materials project and then AS 91344 Implement advanced procedures using resistant materials to make a specified product with special features to build it? I have heard previously that the two standards should not be run within the same project. Also are there any examples of L2 and L3 courses that schools run posted anywhere?


    AS 91344 Implement advanced procedures using resistant materials to make a specified product requires the student to construct a specified product that includes at least two special features (one aesthetic and one structural). In addition, its construction requires the consistent application of accepted conventions and use of advanced craft skills. The agreed specifications for the product to be made must allow these requirements to be met. 

    The specifications could describe a product that the student had developed a conceptual design for, and had been assessed for AS 91356 Develop a conceptual design for an outcome. You would need to check that these specifications allowed the student access to AS 91344, and adjust accordingly if this is not the case.

     Examples of course outlines for Year 11 and 12 can be found at: Planning programmes and units of work: Course outlines

  • Question

    2.21 AS91345 Garments with special features. Would "tailored collars and cuffs" be two special features or are they counted as one? It is stated on the achievement standard they are: 1. Collar 2. Cuffs or 1. Collar and cuffs 2. Set in sleeves


    Collars and cuffs are considered two separate special features. Your first option is correct.

  • Question

    Can you please clarify the intent of AS 91069 and the term "student generated". In particular, note 4 which states "The organised body of work being promoted must be student-generated in response to a design brief and may also include design work sourced through research." We assume the intent of the standard is the way the students have presented the work and how they have created a composition not the content being presented i.e this does not have to be their own work it could be another designers work as shown in the exemplars online. Are we correct in saying that the intent is on 'layout, composition and visual impact' for AS91069; whereas 'modes and media' come more into the mix for AS91343.


    The intent of AS 91069 standard is that students will present aspects of their design ideas/work. This could come from the design ideas or final solution or from the research that they have done – that is, from anywhere in the design pathway.

    The exemplars are still the student’s own work and they are a part of their design portfolio/process and not another designers work. The students that did these samples put together the presentation from images and component pieces.

  • Question

    For the Level 2 Planning standard (As 91355) the outcome our students are heading towards is the creation of a multipage website. In the standard it says "Planning tools may include but are not limited to: brainstorms, mind-maps, idea banks, reflective journals and scrapbooks, plans of action, Gantt charts, flow diagrams, graphical organisers, and spreadsheets and databases." Would students using a layout diagram of their website (i.e. what each page will look like / conceptual type diagram) also count as a planning tool? The diagram would show the placement of elements of the webpage such as header, column, images, text, footer, etc. This is what a web designer would do to help plan a website.


    AS 91355 requires students to: "Use selected planning tools to set achievable goals, establishing resources required and determining critical review points." (Explanatory Note 2)

    The layout diagram described is generally used as a functional modelling tool to present designs and in some instances used to illicit feedback from key stakeholders. If it was to be considered a planning tool, it would need to be seen to be aiding goal setting and/or the establishment of resources required, and/or the determining of critical review points.

  • Question

    Achievement Standard 91617 (external) Can you clarify the difference between "appraise the design of a tech outcome using contemporary design judgement criteria" and "evaluate the quality of the design of a tech outcome using design judgement criteria", as found in the L3 Common Assessment Guide, Candidate guidance for producing the report. My thesaurus gives evaluate as having a similar meaning to appraise.


    The interpretation of these words is also related to the phrases that follow them in the standard criteria.

    Appraising the design of a technological outcome using design judgement criteria: For this criteria at achieved, an appraisal is considered an opinion related to the design judgement criteria.

    Evaluating the quality of the design of a technological outcome using design judgement criteria: For this criteria at merit, evaluating is considered to be the application of the design judgement criteria to produce a critique that is more "objective", "testable", and possibly enumerated.

    The judgement being made by an assessor is that the quality of the critique has improved as the critique has moved beyond informed opinion. The critique has more depth as a better understanding of "design judgement criteria" and/or a better application of the design judgement criteria inform it.

    Additional information is available in the NZQA assessment schedules and assessment reports.

  • Question

    Does the prototype actually have to "work"? Would it be "fit for purpose" if it didn't ?


    A prototype is a finished outcome ready to be trialled in situ. So the intent should be that it will work. It would have to work "well enough" to be trialled.

    At level 2/3 NCEA, students undertake prototyping to gain evidence of fitness for purpose. The student is required to explain any decisions to accept or modify the prototype.

    The approach to prototyping does differ between industries. For example, in the car industry prototyping occurs quickly (as they need the prototype to test), and there will generally be many subsequent modifications.

    In schools, there are time and budget and other constraints when prototyping. A student might make the prototype to the best of their understanding of how it should be and then undertake prototyping. They may then find some aspect doesn't work or isn't quite right as they make a judgment against the brief. The students need to explain any decisions to accept and/or modify the prototype. Responses could include:

    • Although this aspect is not quite right, it is acceptable as is because …
    • While I am not doing it now for time/budget ... reasons, the prototype would need to be modified by doing ... because … (and so on).


    • The student goes on and implements and shows the modification.

    It is expected that the student who carefully works through the development stage will more than likely make a prototype that does work. That is because they have undertaken the evaluating, trialling, selecting, and so on of materials, components, tools, equipment, and practical techniques and processes as required by the standard. 

Return to top ^