Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:

Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore tō tātou waka e ū ki uta

Ask an expert

You can search for questions and answers by using keywords and/or refine your search by selecting from the options below. 

There are 140 results.

  • Question

    Hi I am a horticultural science teacher and I am looking at trying to bring in some more value-added learning into the course. Unfortunately, most of the ag/hort standards are limited to the farm gate i.e. primary products, so we can’t look at how value is added to products once they are produced. The standard AS 91643 caught my eye. We currently do an investigation on attributes of apples and I am looking at how value can be added by turning the juice into a flavoured cider. The Head of Technology is concerned that cider production might not have the complexity and depth of processing required for a level 3 tech standard. The process I am looking at with my students is roughly as follows. • Inoculate nutrient broth with yeast (student selected) and culture until cell count reaches desired level • Juice apples (students select varieties, quantities and ratios for desired flavour profile). • Pour must and sugar (sugar type and quantities determined by students to reach final alcohol concentration/flavour). Acid levels can also be adjusted here with malic acid. • Oxygenate must • Add oak chips/brewed tea • Add cultured yeast broth • Ferment at set temperature. Temperature may need to be controlled using heating pads) • Determine when fermentation has been completed (determined by hydrometer) • Flavouring added depending on the flavouring this can also be added midway through fermentation, the flavouring will be made by the students • Back sweeten with nonfermentable sugar to desired level • Bottle prime with priming sugar. I see plenty of opportunities for feedback loops, cell counts, original gravity, final gravity, back sweetening, fermentation temperature. Is this method complex enough to satisfy the requirements of this standard? It has both subjective testing and objective testing, taste tests, as well as OG, FG, brix levels, acid levels, temperature, masses. I see in the standard that their method needs to be repeatable. Is having the students produce two batches sufficient and comparing the outputs based on flavour, colour, alcohol levels etc okay? When calculating costs, do students only look at variable costs or do we need to take fixed costs into consideration? Would this process meet the requirements of the standard? Cheers


    It is important to consider the ethics of developing an alcoholic product in a school environment in a general sense as well as the procedures around sensory testing of alcohol. The processing of the cider would meet the requirements of complex procedures if further emphasis is placed on the way the techniques and processes are selected for final implementation.

    One of the step ups to level 3 in the processing standards is that the student is required to select their own techniques and processing operations, including tests, and sequence these in an order (create the flow diagram). At level 2, the techniques and processing operations maybe provided by the teacher, but the students are required to sequence them (flow diagram). To meet the requirements of the standard students, need to do more than just follow a standard method. The specifications must clearly define the expected outcome. These could include but are not limited to quantity to be produced, sensory attributes such as sweetness, colour, alcohol content, density (concentration), fermentation requirements, etc. Specifications for the finished cider would need to be developed to allow for the selection of a method, ingredients and the type of testing during processing to have a meaningful impact on the decision-making process. specified before the students begin to establish the process. Trialling should occur and adjustments also be made to the amount of ingredients to produce the desired yield (calculate yield). Calculation of actual costs should be carried out as per explanatory note 9 within the standard.

    If the students produce their cider twice by following their flow diagram (including processing techniques and tests) and then compare the results with their specifications, then they meet the requirements for replicate measurements. This will play a key role in determining whether they have produced an accurate outcome, as required for achievement at merit. Other requirements for achievement at merit include students showing independence as they go about determining their process, and comparing actual cost with predicted cost. Independence is described in the TKI assessment resources.

  • Question

    A teacher at our school teaches both a Construction course assessed using Unit Standards and a Multi Materials course using Achievement Standards. The teacher would like to increase the complexity of the technological outcomes being produced for the students who are doing both courses by using the same outcomes in each course. To clarify, for the unit standards they have to manufacture 3 outcomes and their assessment is workbook based. Could those three outcomes also be used as the context for the achievement standards? E.g. conceptual design, brief, prototype? The idea being that the students are not manufacturing more than required and that they could use the time they have available in both courses to create more complex outcomes. I am of the belief that this should not be an issue since the assessments in each course cover different skills and aspects of the design and manufacturing process.


    The intent of the listed unit standards is different to the generic technology standards being considered for assessment purposes. Therefore, there is no issue regarding duplication of assessment. However, the BCATs standards would probably be appropriate to use as assessment tools during the construction phase such as prototyping and/or constructing the outcome. The evidence for the BCATs standards could drop out of the achievement standards. Unit standard (US)12927 and US 25330 could align with AS 91357 and US 24354 and US 24350 could align with AS 91344. The combinations will also depend on the nature of the student’s projects. If existing BCAT’s projects are used, then the assessor needs to ensure that students projects meet the advanced technique criteria of AS 91344. This maybe a good way to offer differentiated assessment to cater for everyone in the class.

  • Question

    Hi there, I'm a new teacher this year. I'm doing the Construction and Mechanical Technologies 2.21; Implement advanced procedures using textile materials to make a specified product with special features with my level 2 students. Can I use Applique and Needle Felting as advanced procedures? One student is doing Nuno felting with a complex blanket stitch - can the blanket stitch be counted as the 2nd advanced technique (it is embroidery). Thanks in advance for your help.


    The standard defines special features and advanced procedures in the standard as per the explanatory notes below:

    Ex 7 Special features are those that rely on the application of advanced skills. These include but are not limited to: style features, such as set in sleeve, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pockets and/or decorative features such as pin tucking, embroidery, and shirring and/or structural features such as 3D felting and combining different fibres in felting and different materials eg nuno felting. 

    Ex 5 Advanced procedures are those that require advanced skills and the student to select and perform techniques that need scheduling to achieve the special features. 

    All 4 of the techniques are advanced and meet the requirements for the standard. Nuno felting is considered a special feature as it requires the application of advanced features as described in explanatory note 7. The complex blanket stitch could be considered a separate decorative feature. Applique and needle felting would each be considered separate decorative features. 

    In both instances the student would need to provide evidence that they have selected and scheduled the techniques (applied in a certain order) to ensure that they achieved the special features. 

    Students need to select an appropriate technique to use. There may be a variety of ways in which a technique could be applied. This could be done by trialing. Other selection processes such as researching, considering existing experience and skill level and advice from experts could also be used. 

    For scheduling, they should decide what is the best stage of construction to apply these to the garment bag to achieve a quality outcome. They will also need to determine an order in which they will carry out the techniques for their special features –that is nuno felting, needle felting, applying the complex blanket stitch and applique.

  • Question

    Hi there, I am just wondering is it o.k for 1.61- Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used in processing, to use the concept of custards. Students will be given 4 different types of custard to compare and contrast Soft Custards: Creme Anglaise Baked Custards: Crème Brûlée Starch Thickened Custards: pudding Gelatin Set custards: Bavarian Thank you


    Custards would be a suitable food product to explore to develop the understandings required for AS 91083 (1.61) Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used in processing. Students should explore a range of processing operations testing techniques and appropriate safety procedures in processing. It is important to note that the focus of this standard is on the processing and associated testing in making a product and not on the effect that changing ingredients has on the type of product produced. All 4 processing operations must be covered as outlined in explanatory note 4.

    Here are some examples (not an exhaustive list, you and your students will think of others) of custard processing that the students could explore in the 4 operations categories. Each of these techniques will have associated testing:

    one or more of – measuring, shaping, or finishing

    • measuring quantities of ingredients, testing temperature (for both heating and cooling),
    • volume and shape of baking and setting containers to ensure a typical product
    • storage techniques to prevent skin formation on crème anglaise
    • finishing techniques for crème caramel (e.g. blow torch, or using the oven grill)

    one or more of – containment, contamination prevention, or disposal:

    • food safety techniques to prevent contamination when making the various custard types

    one or more of – mixing, extracting, separating, or growing:

    • processing techniques and how these create the different types of custards and their attributes
    • processing techniques to ensure prevention of curdling in different custards

    one or more of – heating, cooling, or reacting

    • heating and cooling techniques used for the different types of custards and how they ensure a typical product
    • the reaction between ingredients to thicken or set the custard

    Testing in food processing provides guidance to help students to understand testing in a classroom environment. This resource highlights the type of qualities that food technologists could identify and test for when processing products.

  • Question

    AS1.60 is focused on assessing a student’s competency in ‘using’ basic procedures to implement a processing operation that enables a specified product to be produced. AS1.61 assesses student understandings of the basic concepts that enable processing to occur. Do both the standards need students to make a product? From what I understand 1.60 is where a student has to produce an outcome to demonstrate competency, were as 1.61 is where a student doesn't have to make a product but can do an investigation/report on a wider concept which compares and contrast difference in processing, safety etc?This could be done through some functional modelling in class.


    Yes, you are correct regarding AS 91082 (1.60) Implement basic procedures to process a specified product -a student should produce an outcome to demonstrate competency.

    For AS 91083 (1.61) Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used in processing students should explore a range of processing operations testing techniques and appropriate safety procedures in processing. Students may find it easier to focus on one product for example bread or cheese or preserves as shown in the NZQA assessment resources for this standard.

    The exemplar for AS 91083 shows the student developing their understandings of processing bread through technological practice. However, this is just one example and students could develop these understandings from multiple learning opportunities. These could include:

    • from their own and other class members, technological practice (including functional modelling.) Class groups could be making different products and sharing their findings with the class.
    • research (this could be carried out individually or in groups and findings shared with the class)
    • industry visits (for example if bread was the focus product a visit could be made to a local baker and understandings gained shared on return to class)

    It is important to note that the focus of this standard is on the processing and associated testing in making a product and not on the effect that changing ingredients has on the type of product produced. All 4 processing operations must be covered as outlined in explanatory note 4.

    For additional information and resources see:

    Connecting with Industry

    There are several video clips here that present information on food processing, testing and food safety in a range of food industries. These include Hinterland Express Old Cottage Cakery, (a food processor providing products for a local environment) Findlay’s Bakeries, (a food processor providing products for a national environment) and Cedenco (a food processor providing products for a global environment).

  • Question

    91057: Implement basic procedures using resistant materials or textile material to make a specified product Would an Electronics project - for example, in which students need to design a printed circuit board, manufacture the printed circuit board, populate and solder components, construct a suitable housing and cable other components such as motors or LCD displays- qualify as a basic procedure to meet the standard? An example could be making a digital clock.


    The construction of the electronic system for the clock would be more accurately assessed against AS91079 Implement basic techniques in constructing a specified electronic and embedded system. The construction of the housing system for the digital clock could be assessed against AS91057 Implement basic procedures using resistant materials or textile material to make a specified product. The specifications for the housing (maybe teacher given or student generated) must meet the requirements of Explanatory note 6 that is:

    Techniques include:

    • one or more of measuring/marking out
    • one or more of sizing/shaping/forming
    • one or more of joining/assembling
    • one or more of finishing/detailing/tuning.
  • Question

    How complex does the prototype need to be when using the prototype standards (91047, 91357,91611). I plan to teach a unit on 3d printing and would like some examples of how 3d printing has been used at L1- 3. For example, would the following brief be acceptable at Level 1: Develop a prototype of a toy with moving parts for children at the local playgroup. The toy must be no bigger than 20cm x 20cm and should be able to stand up on its own.


    The requirements for AS91047 Undertake development to make a prototype to address a brief (see Explanatory note 2) include:

    • selecting and using materials and/or components
    • selecting and using tools and equipment
    • applying practical techniques and processes to make a prototype. 

    Teaching students how to use a 3d printer could be a precursor to enabling students to select (as outlined above), rather than driving the development of the prototype.

    The requirements for the brief for AS91047 (see Explanatory Note 3) state:

    The brief may be provided by the teacher or developed by the student. If the student develops the brief then the teacher must ensure that it provides sufficient guidance to enable the prototype to be developed. The brief used for this standard must allow for a range of outcomes and include a conceptual statement and specifications for the prototype to be evaluated against.

    The brief you suggest could provide more guidance and allow for judgement of fitness for purpose if it had more specifications. For example, these could be around safety, hygiene, the defined age group, the relevant cognitive and or fine motor skills the toy could develop, and/or whatever else the playgroup environment may require. A discussion with stakeholders from the playcentre should enable an authentic conceptual statement and a range of relevant specifications to be presented to students as a starting point.

    At level 3 NCEA AS91611 Develop a prototype considering fitness for purpose in the broadest senserequires that the brief used must allow judgement of an outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. There have been several other Ask an Expert questions on this concept see - AAE search fitness for purpose in its broadest sense.

    There is also a webcast on “fitness for purpose in its broadest sense” at Team Solutions Wikispace screencasts

    The prototyping standards across the three NCEA levels are used to assess the student's ability to develop a prototype, rather than any complexity of the outcome itself. See Explanatory Note 5 for a definition of a prototype and prototyping as used for these standards.

    A prototype is a finished outcome that is ready to be trialled in situ. It is developed through technological practice and is reflective of accepted techniques and tolerances, and safety and legal responsibilities. Prototyping is the trialling of the prototype to gain evidence for the evaluation of the outcome’s fitness for purpose in its intended physical and social environment (context).

    This definition is similar across all of the 3 standards mentioned.

  • Question

    What is the distinction between competing and contestable factors in the level 3 functional modelling external (91612)? I have read a few definitions but I feel as if I need some examples of comments students might make about addressing those through functional modelling. Am I on the right track in thinking that students may model a design to ensure it is actually viable or not (viability being a competing factor). Then they may use another form of functional modelling to experiment with aesthetics which are more subjective and influenced by the opinions of stakeholders (a contestable factor). does that capture the distinction between the two types of factors?


    There is an excellent screencast by Pippa Lawlor on this standard that is available on YouTube.

    Students may examine functional modelling used within their own technological practice. Equally they may also research the modelling that was used in the creation and use of a prototype outside of their own practice.

    The difference between contestable and competitive factors is described within this screencast as follows: 

    “Competing factors are those that are in direct opposition and therefore only one can be chosen to be put ahead of all the others. Ultimately this means that only one can be accommodated or one must be prioritised over the other or one overrides the other or actually outweighs the other in the selection process. Competing factors that students may readily identify within their own practice are time versus quality where students are working to strict time constraints or cost versus quality where students are working with a limited budget. Typically priorities are tied to a specification and ranked. One priority will become the most important and influencing factor for decision making.

    Contestable factors are those that can be disputed. Choices can be challenged, as there is always more than one viewpoint. Compromise can be accommodated in a design but the priority or importance will vary with stakeholder views. They are often based on people’s roles, views and values. These factors may arise from a number of issues, which include but are not limited to ethical, social, historical, cultural, political, economic, sustainable, humanitarian and environmental. Some factors maybe highly contestable and others perhaps less so. For example if we look at the issue of culturally appropriate design we might ask the question who decides on the culture and its appropriateness – this is dependent on values and viewpoints. Another example would be to look at environmentally friendly material and ask the question to what extent is it really green? “

  • Question

    I'd like some clarification about AS91634, please. In particular, what does it mean when it says (EN2) “explaining why content needs to be manipulated to be used across media types" EN5 says that "Media types include: text, web languages, audio, video, graphics, animation or still images." This suggests that the standard is talking about processes such as turning text into audio (screen readers), web languages to video (??), still images to web languages etc. Most of these pairings sound crazy. EN8 gives examples of presenting content across different media. One example is presenting “web content on screen and in print or on mobile devices”. Does this mean that comparing web content presented on screen with web content presented on a mobile device is sufficient to address this part of the standard?


    The intent of this part of the standard is that students should be able to explain why similar media types such as video or still images may need to be manipulated for different outcomes at achieved.

    An example is that resolutions will be different depending on the use

    For instance, an image used in a large adverting poster may have a resolution of 10 pixels per inch (PPI) or less, an Image on a website typically would be 75 PPI and in a magazine 200 PPI.  

    Similarly, video delivered to a web browser and to a phone will have different characteristics.

    As the standard requires two digital media (EN3) then it is quite conceivable the student could explain why one digital media type is used in differing ways (such as a web site and a print media.) The focus should be on the depth of explanation rather than a large number of media types. 

  • Question

    How do different forms of modelling provide valid and reliable evidence from different stakeholder groups?


    Depending on the decisions that the technologist is needing to make at the time, modelling may be in different forms for different stakeholder groups. For example:

    • At the initial stage of development of an outcome, the technologist may be seeking feedback on the broad attributes of the product. Talking over ideas could be an appropriate form of modelling.
    • When seeking evidence on proportion, form and shape of a possible outcome, a three-dimensional model (rather than a flat drawing) should make it easier for a group of stakeholders to give valid and reliable feedback.
    • For some stakeholder groups, it may be appropriate to model components of the outcome - so, for example, they can be checked for technical feasibility and stakeholder expectations. 

    Additional information  is available here under  key ideas for technological modelling

Return to top ^