Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:

Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore tō tātou waka e ū ki uta

Ask an expert

You can search for questions and answers by using keywords and/or refine your search by selecting from the options below. 

There are 140 results.

  • Question

    Can you suggest examples of transforming textiles in Textile technology. We have talked about felting. Can you confirm whether adding interfacing is an example of manipulating or transforming.


    There are few examples of transforming textiles readily available as detailed information is required from the manufacturer about the chemical composition of the material to confirm that this has not changed.

    Other materials such as food could provide examples of transformation.

    There is some discussion around these definitions in a previous ask an expert answer on the definition of transformation.

    Adding interfacing to fabric is considered transforming as the performance properties of the material change however the chemical composition of the material remains the same. The material becomes more rigid and stiff with the addition of interfacing, adding body to the garment. Interfacing may also be used to add strength for example when it is used in  an area where buttonholes maybe added.

    Manipulating materials in textiles generally refers to such things as pressing to manage ease, gathering and pleating (to remove fullness) cutting and trimming.

  • Question

    What is a system?


    A technological system, as defined in the technology learning area, is a system that works independently or automatically of human input after it’s been started or switched on. Simple examples of these include a wind-up toy, a popcorn maker, and a toaster. More sophisticated systems include a stove or a computer.

    Technology Online has a section on the technological systems component of the technology learning area. The video in the introduction and the key ideas provide further information on this component.

    See the teaching snapshot exploring technological systems and computational thinking using household appliances to read about investigating technological systems in the classroom. 

  • Question

    How do you translate "Design and Visual Communication" into te reo Māori?


    A translation for "Design and Visual Communication" is Te Whakawhitiwhiti ā-Hoahoa, ā-Atanga. 

  • Question

    I have a student who has trialled a range of materials to inform selection. However, the material (fabric) she has selected to construct her prototype in was not used to complete her prototype. The student tested a range of different materials and then selected a cotton pink polka dot fabric to use for her final prototype. After testing, when she went to purchase the fabric, the fabric store did not have her original selection. She still picked a cotton material with the same properties as the fabric she originally planned to use, however the pattern and colour were completely different from her original selection, changing from a pink polka dot design to a blue striped pattern. She meets all of the other criteria of the standard to gain an excellence but because she did not use the fabric she selected after trialling, does that mean that she fails the standard with a Not Achieved grade?


    See Technology clarifications AS 91047
    When selecting materials and/or components, and tools and equipment, as required for Achieved, some evidence of informed selection is required. For example, informed selection may involve evaluating past and current practices, considering the availability of tools, equipment, and materials, and evaluating fitness for purpose for the nature of the intended outcome.
    For higher grades, students need to undertake trialling to inform the selection of materials and/or components, and techniques and processes.

    The fact that the student was unable to purchase the exact fabric selected through trialling should not limit access to the higher grades. The student would need to provide evidence that further trialling was carried out to take into account any changes required to tools and equipment, and the application of practical techniques as a result of the material change. For example, they may have had to consider matching stripes during construction.

    There will also need to be evidence that colour and print on the material is not a requirement of the brief. If so, the student needs to provide evidence that they have gone back and consulted with the stakeholder and adjusted the brief to ensure that the new material meets the aesthetic requirements.

  • Question

    I am embarking on AS91611 Develop a prototype considering fitness for purpose in the broadest sense and will be using a food context in which students are to design a prototype from a given recipe. What is the best way to explain fitness for purpose in the broadest sense in this situation? The context that I am giving to the class is one based on street food. We have a number of pop-up type caravans around Christchurch mostly post earthquakes. As the class is Year 13 I will ask them focus on their age group and get them to develop a product as if they would set up and sell it onsite at school.


    Fitness for purpose in its broadest sense relates to the outcome itself as well as to the practices used to develop the outcome. This is a curriculum level 8 concept and is referred to in the generic achievement standards at NCEA Level 3. Some of the areas students could consider when demonstrating understandings of this concept and/or applying this within practice are shown in the table below. These suggestions should not be considered exhaustive and students will find other ideas that relate to particular outcomes.

    Some teachers have found that, when developing a brief that allows fitness for purpose in the broadest sense, it works well to have students develop specifications for the two aspects. That is, students categorise their specifications as either being for the outcome itself or for the practices to be undertaken to develop the outcome. This helps to reinforce that students must consider more than just fitness for purpose (as is the practice at NCEA Level 2).

    Examining and critiquing the practice of technologists within the framework of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense can also assist students to develop their understandings of this concept. Students could examine and critique the practices of a technologist by inviting a technologist to speak to the class (e.g. a food truck vendor) and/or students in groups interviewing a variety of street food vendor and sharing their findings with the class.

    Fitness for purpose in its broadest sense: Possible considerations Food
    Sustainability of resources

    Do the resources used to make the outcome meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs?

    As part of sustainability we need to also consider the difference between recycling, reusing and upcycling of materials and components. Is there an element of the project that could be addressing:

    • food waste (in production and also food not sold)  
    • composting
    • further processing of already used ingredients into other food (e.g. used oil for frying, vegetable skins)

    What do we know or are able to find out about the production and processing of the food ingredients?

    Will locally grown ingredients be a consideration?


    What preparation of the product can be done away from the pop-up caravan? What will need to be done nearer the time of service? Is this realistic for the vendor?

    How will the product be stored? What limitations will a food truck have in food storage – both in space and equipment?

    Are the storage requirements for the product realistic for a food truck? How easy will this be? Who will do it?

    What is the expected product life?

    Determination of life cycle

    What will be the life cycle be of all of the components of the outcome (food and packaging, serviettes, if applicable)?

    Will there be any opportunities for reuse?

    Ultimate disposal

    What are the plans for disposal of the food product and any packaging when no longer safe for consumption?

    What will the impact on the environment be?

    Practices used in manufacturing

    Where relevant outcomes should comply with legislation, e.g. with Food Safety and intellectual property law and using the ideas of others.

    What are the requirements of a food truck vendor in terms of the Food Act and how do these translate into all stages of the food product development?

    Does the product address any special dietary requirements including allergies?

    What information is provided to the consumer on the nutritional and ingredient content of the food product developed?

    Do the practices comply with expected codes of practice and any relevant legislation both at the site of production and the site of sale?

    Where do the ingredients and other materials originate from and what are the working conditions of employees?

    Are the manufacturing practices used efficient?

    What determinants are used to quantify efficiency and manage yield?

    Food costs and profitability are vital in street food. Listen to: Are food trucks over?

    Is waste minimised, managed, exploited for profit?


    Are there cost/benefit relationships to be considered in developing the outcome?

    Is the proposed product likely to be profitable?

    Are there local food outlets that will be impacted by the street food?

    Are wider unseen costs included in feasibility calculations? What other costs do the street vendors need to consider (rent, power, maintenance of the vehicle, insurance, etc.)?

    Cultural appropriateness of trialling procedures

    Have other cultures or age groups been considered for how they may view the food product and designs and imagery within packaging (if applicable)? How will this impact on their willingness or not to be involved in trialling as a result of this?

    Were cultural beliefs around food choices and behaviour considered when trialling?

    Ethical nature of testing practices

    Ergonomics – was the outcome tested on a range of expected users including those with disabilities?

    Is valid sensory testing for the product carried out?

    Was the outcome tested in the environment that was intended for its use?

    Safety How has safety in the workplace been considered in the methods developed for processing of the food product?
  • Question

    Can you explain to me what students should consider in fitness for purpose in its broadest sense in a programming context?


    An answer to this question has been posted in the Ask an Expert facility.

    See: Search result for Fitness for purpose digital technologies

    The resource Top scholar 2016: A monitoring system for the Orokonui Ecosanctuary includes a discussion of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense as applied to this project which included programming.

  • Question

    I have been asked by another teacher to clarify ways in which fabrics/textiles can be used as examples of Technological Systems. Can the development of a patchwork quilt be considered a system – with inputs of fabric pieces, wadding and backing transformed into the final patchwork quilt design?


    A technological system within the Technology learning area is generally defined as a system that works independently or automatically of human input. After the system has been started or switched on it works automatically. A clock on the wall is a good example of a technological system. It works independently of human input once the batteries are put in and it is switched on. Humans are not required to turn the actual handles of the clock, it’s doing the turning of the hands of the clock by itself. Other examples commonly used are toasters, stoves, hot water systems, and electronic systems generally.

    The development of the patchwork quilt would not be considered a system. However, technological systems can be embedded in textile products.

    Here is an example of a quilt that includes a lighting system (a technological system):

    Here is an example of a simple interactive quilt with multiple sensors:

    Some textile teachers will also support students to add electronic lighting systems to wearable art products.

    Here is an example of a dress that has a technological system embedded in it that allows the butterflies to fly off the dress:

    There is also mention of embedding circuits in textiles in this video clip:

    Technological systems such as body sensors may also be added to clothing. This is very prevalent with military clothing. See The Rise of Smart Clothing and Body Sensors for Military Use.

    There are various courses available for textiles teachers to learn about embedding soft circuits in textiles such as Soft Circuits and Sensors.

  • Question

    Are there any articles that I can read that explain the link between teaching Technology and incorporating the teaching of literacy and numeracy?


    Here are some resources on Technology Online that may help.

  • Question

    In regards to AS 91621 complex procedures I'm looking for some clarification as to how many complex procedures a garment should have? I have a few students who have designed a sweatshirt with a front kangaroo pocket. The pocket requires iron on fusing to stabilise its two openings and top stitching to hem the opening edges. We will be experimenting with twin stitching and cover seaming for this pocket. Would this be of sufficient rigour for the student to qualify as implementing complex procedures or would the garment require more procedures? Many thanks.


    The standard requires students to have at least two complex procedures from the list indicated in EN3. Patched Kangaroo pockets is equivalent to patched pockets, which is below a level 2 skill. However, students could develop a welt/side pocket type kangaroo pocket, constructed using two different materials (a step up from level 2). To stabilise the garment, before the insertion of the welt and pocket, students could trial various types of interfacing and methods of applying interfacing. This would meet the requirements of a second complex procedure as indicated in EN3.

  • Question

    I am reading through the resource for AS 91096 – making basic adaptions to a pattern. I was wondering – you talk about a toile, but are students required to make a final product, or a finished product? Or do they just make a toile or mock up to show the pattern adaptions?


    A toile is a fully finished garment that reflects the style and measurements of the user, but made with cheap materials. The final product will be constructed to the style and measurements of the toile but with the actual material selected to make this product.

    The purpose of the toile is to realise the 2D changes made into 3D so that the pattern adaptations can be tested and perfected.

    This process often requires student to undertake ongoing testing of the garment and note changes on the original pattern. For example, the student may make a sleeve and test for fitting on the user. The different parts would finally be sewn together and final fitting tests made.

    This iterative process also involves making ongoing changes on the pattern’s construction guide. Students are expected to add and remove instructions to reflect the construction details and order of construction of the toile.

Return to top ^