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Ministry of Education.
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  • Question

    AS91623 (3.23) Implement complex procedures to create an applied design for a specified product. I understand from reading a previous question posted that the specified product does not need to be constructed by the student and therefore could be as simple as a plain, white t-shirt purchased from Kmart, am I correct? The student has developed their design that they wish to apply to the t-shirt and they have tested it with heat transfer vinyl pressed onto some similar t-shirt material and as textile ink screen printed onto t-shirt material. From testing and evaluation the two different mediums/techniques the student has identified that the heat transfer vinyl looks more professional and enhances the product more so than the screen printed option so has decided to apply their design onto their plain, white Kmart t-shirt using heat transfer vinyl. I understand the design itself must be complex (EN5 + EN6) Are we on the right track?


    Yes, it is acceptable for the student to apply the design to a purchased product.

    Technology clarifications for AS 91623 state: Students will need to trial to determine possible complex techniques, equipment, and materials to create the complex design.

    Explanatory note 5 gives guidelines around expectations for the complexity of techniques to be applied.

    Appropriate testing will demonstrate that the applied design enhances the product's aesthetics. The student has trialled possible complex techniques to create the complex design.
    The student will need to describe the testing they carried out to demonstrate the applied design enhanced t-shirt aesthetics. Testing could include visual testing by themselves and others against specifications for aesthetics. They could also test the response to laundering for the different techniques.
    The complexity of the design is the combination of artistic skill to enhance the aesthetics (shape, colours, texture, or dimensions) of a product with the technical skills to produce it.
    With heat transfer vinyl the complexity would need to be trialled and tested. A design downloaded from the internet then resized digitally before cutting the vinyl is not complex. Whereas, designing the image and manipulating it to create the desired effect, and cutting it from two colours of vinyl is more complex. Students need to be advised as to what is a complex applied design.
    For example; a design that is to be repeated could be complex in the number of repeats, or how many times it is printed on the fabric.

  • Question

    I am teaching year 7 and 8 technology and am wanting to know which level or levels of the technology curriculum should be taught and assessed at these two year levels. Also, when reporting what wording should be used to indicate where the students learning is at i.e. should we use below, at, exceeding or provide a specific grade? Thank you.


    The guidance within the New Zealand Curriculum shows how curriculum levels typically relate to years at school. As noted, many students do not fit this pattern. They include those with special learning needs, those who are gifted, and those who come from non-English speaking backgrounds. Students learning an additional language are also unlikely to follow the suggested progression.
    The students prior learning within the technology learning area also needs to be considered. You may wish to contact your primary schools to determine this.

    Schools will have their own systems for reporting. The Ministry of Education has recently released a comprehensive guide: Leading local curriculum design in the revised technology learning area: Equipping your students for tomorrow’s worldWithin the guide section, high-impact practice 3: Building coherent pathways, you will see you can use the technology indicators to help you plan a coherent technology programme. They can also be used as a basis for assessing and reporting on students’ progress in all five technological areas. You can also watch this video planning for technology at primary showing a primary school tracking progression using the indicators of progression.

  • Question

    Where would raranga fit in level 1 NCEA? I am wondering if there is a standard that would suit assessment of weaving a harakeke four-cornered rourou basket?


    AS 91058 could be used to assess the weaving of a harakeke four-cornered rourou basket.

    Explanatory note 6 in this standard states:

    Construction techniques include: 

    • one or more of measuring/marking out – techniques here could include the measuring and laying out of the harakeke, and determining the amount of weaving to create the correct size of the rourou
    • one or more of sizing/shaping/forming – techniques here could include the laying out of the harakeke to ensure the rourou is evenly woven, the structure of the weaving to produce the specified shape of the rourou, and the forming of the corners of the rourou
    • one or more of joining/assembling – techniques here could include the weaving techniques used with the harakeke to ensure a close weave
    • one or more finishing/detailing – techniques here could include the locking off of the weaving to secure the top of the rourou, and/or any patterns included in the rourou.

    If the student is developing a rourou for a specific purpose and engaging in technological practice you could also consider assessment against:

    • AS 91047 Undertake development to make a prototype to address a brief
    • AS 91045 Use planning tools to guide the technological development of an outcome to address a brief
    • AS 91044 Undertake brief development to address a need or opportunity.
  • Question

    Is there an outline that I can find that shows a matrix of the different technology subjects, for example, hard materials, food tech, soft materials, digital? Can food tech be classed as soft materials, I only thought that it was fabric?


    The link below is to the diagram which shows the technological areas within the technology learning area:

    Technology in the NZC

    Technology programmes of learning may integrate more than one technological area. By integrating technological areas students are offered a rich programme of learning.

    On the right hand side of the page – Technology – you will see the Technology Matrix, which shows the structure of the NCEA standards for assessment. These include generic standards that can be used across all technological areas and subject specific standards for:

    • Construction and mechanical technologies (soft and hard materials including textiles)
    • Design and visual communication (sometimes called graphics in secondary schools)
    • Digital technologies and Hangarau matihiko
    • Processing technologies (includes food technology and biotechnology).

    Secondary schools may offer technology subjects that include assessment from more than one of these in a programme of learning. For example, teaching and learning and assessment for design and visual communication and textiles maybe included in one course.

  • Question

    For AS91345 level 2, do students need to do for both special features, trial two ways of completing the special feature and then select which way is best? For example, trial two different ways to complete a set-in sleeve and then select the best way to do this to use on their final garment or can they just plan to test one way of inserting their set-in sleeve and if it works out well they can just use that way without trialling another way?


    The Technology clarifications for AS 91345 state:

    Students must demonstrate that they have purposefully selected the techniques to be used to construct these special features.

    The student needs to provide evidence that they have considered more than one technique to implement their special feature. To meet the requirements of this standard, selection of techniques can be carried out through research and/or by trialling. For example, the student could critique written instructions for an alternative technique to implement their special feature.

    Explanatory note 1 in AS 91345 states:

    Implement advanced procedures using textile materials to make a specified product with special features involves:

    • selecting and scheduling techniques to achieve special features
    • undertaking testing to monitor special feature construction to demonstrate that the product meets specifications
    • applying scheduled techniques to comply with relevant health and safety regulations.

    Evidence needs to show from testing that the technique used resulted in the product meeting specifications.

  • Question

    I'm working with year 12 textile students on 2.6 advanced pattern adaptations – a student has made one adaptation – changed the straight sleeve on a blouse to a bell shaped. We need one more adaptation. Could we change the bottom of the bell sleeve by pleating it, putting a bias around the cuff, splitting the sleeve seam by about 4-5 cm, and adding a button hole and button count as a second adaptation?


    Yes – changing the bottom of the bell sleeve as described would be considered a second adaptation as described in the explanatory notes 6 and 7 of the standard.

    To meet the requirements of the standard the student also needs to show ongoing testing of toiles or mock-ups to refine the pattern as required to ensure the adapted pattern interprets the design and provides the correct fit for the body or item. See the clarifications for AS91350 for further information on this.

  • Question

    Kia ora, Could you please point me in the right direction to find the formula for student:space ratio for intermediate school technology workshops (food, hard materials, fabric etc) please. Ngā mihi,


    The Safety in technology education: A guidance manual for New Zealand schools is found in the: Practice framework resources for health and safety.

    Within Safety in technology education there are the following statements:
    On page 12, the National Administration Guideline 4 (NAG 4) states that school boards of trustees (BOT), is required to:

    • provide a safe physical and emotional environment for students
    • comply in full with any legislation currently in force or that may be developed to ensure the safety of students and employees.

    On page 9 there is also a reference to the work environment. A person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) in a school is the board of trustees.

    "36 Primary duty of care

    (3) Without limiting subsection (1) or (2), a PCBU must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, —

    (a) the provision and maintenance of a work environment that is without risks to health and safety."

    On page 83, appendix 2 provides a safety planning template. This refers to Regulation 13.

    "See Regulation 13. If the space is inadequate for the number of students involved, how will you organise for all students to undertake the activity safely?"

    Regulation 13 was revoked in May 2017 after the guidelines were published. This regulation has been replaced by Regulation 6 which is less specific in nature. The current legislation aims to enable PCBUs to consider their environment, workers, and others and enable individual judgements to be made in light of individual circumstances.

    Within the Safety in technology education there are no specific statements about space required per student working in a particular technological area. It is suggested that you discuss your health and safety concerns regarding the classroom spaces with your principal. The safety planning template could provide a useful framework on which to base these discussions.

  • Question

    In AS91890 students have to propose a digital technologies outcome. There is no mention of designing or developing the actual outcome, yet in both TKI tasks there is a reference to the actual outcome. Both have the following lines "6. Write a brief outline of the digital technologies outcome you propose to develop. This can be a partially developed or a completed outcome." Surely there is no need for "a partially developed or complete outcome" as we are looking for a proposal - a description of what the outcome will be. The next stage would be to design the outcome and then make it. Could you please clarify? Thanks


    Standard AS91890 is all about conducting the inquiry to make the proposal for the digital technologies outcome. There is no requirement that the outcome is actually made, however most teachers would pair it with one of the other standards to assess that actual outcome.

  • Question

    Would creating a patchwork fabric in order to make a garment count as a special feature for AS91345?


    Creating the garment from patchworked material will likely meet the standard at level 2 in terms of decorative features and of using and arranging different sized material pieces.

    The student would still need to add structural or style features (as per explanatory note 7) to the garment to fully meet the standard.

    If the student was creating a patchwork quilt, for example, the application of the layers with batting and sewing would allow this to occur in terms of a structural feature. (This is likely level 3 depending on the patchwork skills used.)

  • Question

    Can you please provide a more detailed list of approved special features? I am struggling to find patterns that are modern that my students will wear and enjoy making which tick the current boxes of the listed special features as outlined in (7). Set in sleeves is about as close as I can get. Patterns my students enjoy using are Tilly and the Buttons and Papercut patterns.


    When interpreting the special features outlined in explanatory note 7 the level of student skill should be comparable to these examples.

    A jumpsuit – this would not meet the standard criteria as the style and structural features are more closely matched to the criteria for the level 1 NCEA AS 91058, implement basic procedures using textile materials to make a specified product.

    A blazer – this would meet the standard criteria for special features as the pattern includes set in seams and welt pockets.

    A cardigan – the tab front with buttonholes and the shawl collar could be considered one special feature. The cuffs could be considered an advanced technique if they were made from another fabric (rather than knit) and a tailored effect achieved.

    It is important to note in NZQA clarifications for AS 91345 that the students need to research different techniques to construct the special features. From this research they need to select a technique that will allow for a quality outcome and schedule this into the construction plan. They need to consider more than just the guidelines suggested in a commercial pattern to select the technique.

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