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Ministry of Education.
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  • Question

    Unit Standard 18734 asks students to "Enter text and graphics media". Question: Do they have to compose their own text and get their own graphics or can the teacher give this to the students?


    There is no requirement for students to create their own text and graphics for US 18734.

  • Question

    I have taken over the teaching of a class who have been assigned AS91345. The students have been given the choice of Papercut Patterns - Sapporo Jacket, Stacker Jacket, and the Kobe Dress / top. I am unsure that these patterns will meet the requirements in terms of the skills they require students to demonstrate. Confirmation or not please.


    The three patterns listed meet the requirements of the special features as outlined in explanatory note 7 that is:

    "Special features are those that rely on the application of advanced skills. These include but are not limited to: style features, such as set in sleeve, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pockets and/or decorative features such as pin tucking, embroidery, and shirring and/or structural features such as 3D felting and combining different fibres in felting and different materials e.g. nuno felting."

    (NZQA.govt.nz AS 91345

    The style features noted in each of the patterns are:

    • Sapporo Jacket: Angled seaming and pockets hidden in the front seams.
    • Stacker jacket: Choice of flapped in-seam pockets or oversized patch pockets, plus a tailored collar and set in sleeve.
    • Kobe dress/top: Set in sleeve, pleats overlapping and a keyhole neckline. 

    Lining the jackets is not necessary to meet the requirements of AS 91345 Implement complex procedures using textile materials to make a specified product with special features, but it is one of the features that may be considered for complex procedures at level 3 using AS 91621 Implement complex procedures using textile materials to make a specified product.

  • Question

    Standard 91351 Planning to do this standard with students: would the following products be acceptable at Level 2; gourmet cupcake (will have two or three components); ice-cream (integration of local and seasonal ingredients); students design pie for a food truck.


    The assessment schedule for the TKI NCEA technology assessment resource, Process a lemon meringue pie, provides examples of acceptable evidence for each grade.

    To find this resource, The Microsoft Word file is on the NCEA TKI site, Level 2 Technology assessment resources page. It is towards the bottom of the page under Processing Technologies 2.60 (AS91351), in the middle row of the table, and entitled "2.60 Food".

    The teacher guidelines are also very useful in explaining requirements. 

    Within this assessment task it states:

    "For this assessment the students are given the ingredients, the processing operations, the tests, and a HACCP plan. They must determine the sequence of processing and testing to produce a successful meringue pie and follow the HACCP plan when processing and testing."

    All three of the products listed could meet the requirements of the processing operations listed in explanatory note 9 of the standard, Standard 91351 on NZQA.govt.nz.

    The students will also need to be familiar with testing in food processing so that they are able to self select tests that are appropriate to their product.

    The Technology Online teaching snapshot, Testing in food processing, provides guidance on helping students understand and apply authentic testing while food processing in a school classroom setting.

    Explanatory note 7 states :
    "Advanced procedures are those that require the student to perform a self-determined sequence of processing operations and tests to make a successful product. The specifications of the product, the materials to be processed, and the processing operations and tests to be undertaken will be provided to the student. The sequencing will not be provided."

    Students will also need to be familiar with processing operations for their product and to be able to self select a sequence to follow to produce a successful product.

  • Question

    Hi there just wondering if you have access to any teaching as inquiry topics that teachers have pursued over the years. Our tech team are looking at how to balance the teaching of skills versus design process. We know that they are interlinked but were wondering if there is any research or readings that would help?


    Below are a selection of video clips showing an inquiry learning based approach including the technology learning area.

    Flight inquiry:

    ANZAC and sustainability inquiries:

    The second project here may be of interest as the title suggests – learning in technology does not always have to be about technological practice and making products.

    Below are two written resources describe an inquiry that met an authentic need for the school:

    How it all fits together

    The 1995 curriculum was focused on skills and knowledge.

    The 2007 New Zealand Curriculum and the revision to the technology learning area in 2017, repositioned skills as one pathway to understanding about, and being a technologist (using a design process) to create outcomes that meet needs of users/stakeholders in an authentic/real-world, local context.

    The design process is the way students understand how technologists (students) solve issues/problems and is the purpose of the technological practice strand. The skills and knowledge a technologist needs whilst they are using a design process, are described broadly in the technological knowledge strand. The questions students have about the people and place the technologist is designing their outcome for, is the purpose of the nature of technology strand. To be successful designers of outcomes, students have to experience learning in all three strands. Students understand all this as they experience being technologists themselves. This is how the technology learning area differs from the other seven learning areas.

    Teaching as inquiry is different to inquiry learning. Inquiry learning guides students to solve issues/problems across all learning areas.

    Teaching as inquiry is intended to guide teacher decision making as they support students technology learning.
    Teaching as inquiry model of practice/pedagogy (New Zealand Curriculum, page 35) involves the teacher applying a three step process so they know what the impact of their teaching is on learning: 

    1. Focusing – What is important (and therefore worth spending time on), given where my students are at?
    2. Teaching inquiry – What strategies (evidence-based) are most likely to help my students learn this?
    3. Learning inquiry – What happened as a result of the teaching, and what are the implications for future teaching?
  • Question

    I need some advice on the link between "NCEA Standard - Achievement Objective - Strand" for DT NCEA level 1. Thanks,


    The NCEA standards at Level 1, are written to determine a student’s learning performance at level 6 (of 8) of the New Zealand Curriculum (NZC).

    The achievement objectives provide the details of learning at each NZC Level and are the content for each of the three technology strands.

    Each of the three strands has components of technology, and each component has eight achievement objectives, one for each NZC level. For example, the nature of technology strand, has two components; characteristics of technology and characteristics of technological outcomes. At level 6, there is an achievement objective for each (see the technology indicators).

    For senior secondary, the resources on the senior secondary TKI site support educators in the task of designing their learning programmes to align the achievement objectives, with specialist courses like digital technologies. The senior secondary TKI site, has some excellent resources, in the teaching and learning guides. Using the section menu on right hand side of the technology teaching and learning guide shows how digital technologies at senior secondary relates to the technology learning area strands and the other technology areas.

    The revision to the technology learning area, saw the strengthening of digital technologies, and the addition of progress outcomes, which contain the significant steps for learning that students should take in order to progress their specialist digital, and broader technology understanding.


    The progress outcomes contain significant learning steps in both specialist digital concepts, and those contained within the mandatory technology strands. For a student to meet the requirements of the progress outcomes and the strands, an educator should plan learning activities using both progress outcomes and achievement objectives to ensure a rich, authentic, student centred, learning experience.

  • Question

    I have students completing a project at Level 3 incorporating AS91621 Implement complex procedures to make a specified product, and AS91623 Implement complex procedures to create an applied design for a specified product. My question is: Can the complex applied design be included as one of the complex procedures from AS91621.


    The complex procedures outlined in Explanatory note 3 of AS 91621 are:

    • joining materials with different properties, for example, jacket shell and lining, sailcloth on to tape
    • changing the characteristics of the materials, for example, interfacing, interlining, boning
    • managing special fabrics, for example, fine knits, sheers, satins, ripstop nylon, canvas
    • managing the inclusion of structural or style features, for example, tucks, pockets, openings, closures, weather proof storage
    • cutting on the bias.

    These relate to managing the fabric and the inclusion of structural and style features not applying a design to the fabric.

    The complex applied design would need to be separate to the complex procedures for AS 91621.

  • Question

    I am looking to introduce AS91624 to my Y13 Engineering class. I have been unable to find exemplars. Are there any available?


    NZQA has an annotated exemplar available: Technology - annotated exemplars level 3 AS91624.

    NZGTTA (New Zealand Graphics and Technology Teachers Association) is the recognised network of expertise in this area. They also operate an online discussion group where teachers can pose questions and share student work.
    To join see membership details on their website: wp.nzgtta.co.nz.

  • Question

    Are there any resources for User Experience Methodologies?


    Regarding AS 91901, Technology Online does not have resources with a particular focus on user experience methodologies as referred to in this level 3 NCEA standard.
    DTTA (Digital Technologies Teachers Aotearoa) is the recognised network for expertise for digital technologies within the technology learning area.
    As part of membership they have an online discussion group where teachers are able to pose questions and share teaching and learning resources. For membership information see their website: nzacditt.org.nz 
    The Ministry of Education also provides updates on this discussion group regarding when there are new modules available from Auckland University to support the new standards. These are available through the Senior secondary TKI site on the page:DT and HM Online for NCEA.

  • Question

    Can I use AS91357 to develop a bag (prototype)?


    Yes, the development of a prototype bag would be suitable for this assessment.

    See technology clarifications AS 91357 It is suggested that: Students could refer to materials and/or components, tools and equipment, and techniques and processes required in the subject specific 'implement' standards such as AS 91345 Implement advanced procedures using textile materials to make a specified product with special features

    AS 91357 does not outline the features required of a prototype. Rather, this standard assesses the ability of the student to undertake effective development to make and trial a prototype. However, the students do need to be developing a prototype to a brief (either developed by the student or given by the teacher) that will give them access to the criteria for this standard.

    If the student is going to make the product and be also assessed by an implement standard (for example, AS 91345) the trialling of advanced techniques as applicable to the implement standard could be used in both standards.

  • Question

    AS91621 (3.21) Implement complex procedures using textile materials to make a specified product. Can I have some clarification/examples of the following points... Explanatory note 3 managing the inclusion of structural or style features. Can I please have some examples of which pockets, openings and closures, are acceptable for this standard. E.g. is a cross crescent pocket and an invisible zip acceptable? If not please give some examples. Changing the characteristics of the materials, can it be as simple as applying iron-on fusing to a fabric to strengthen it in areas where needed? Thanks


    The style features examples given of a cross crescent pocket, installing an invisible zip, and using fusible interfacing to stabilise a fabric to produce an outcome to meet specifications are all acceptable for this standard.
    Please note the additional requirement for this standard as outlined in the technology clarifications for AS 91621.
    The selection of complex techniques must be the result of trialling different procedures appropriate for the particular selected materials and using this feedback to inform practice. Students will need to explore different ways of implementing at least two complex procedures (as in Explanatory note 3). For example, there may be several ways of inserting an invisible zip into an outfit that is made with a sheer fabric.

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