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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore to tātou waka e ū ki uta

Planning for Practice

Planning for Practice

These examples are shown against specific curriculum levels. When planning a technology unit however the specific teaching strategy selected will depend on the context learning. Teachers are therefore encouraged to look across the curriculum levels to identify strategies that best match the focussed teaching needs of their students and the context selected for learning. Teachers also need to be aware of cultural considerations and include appropriate strategies for Māori and Pasifika students. Examples of these strategies can be found in resources such as Tuakana Teina.

Supporting Learning Environment Level 1

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • establishes the need or opportunity and defines the conceptual statement through negotiation with the students.
  • guides students to identify attributes for an appropriate outcome.
  • structures students' Technological Practice through a series of linked learning experiences (both pre-planned and responsive) to provide opportunity for knowledge and skill development.
  • provides resources, that support student's to develop their outcome.
  • provides students with an overview of the key stages they will undertake during their Technological Practice.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Describing what they have done already and the resources they have used so far.

Brainstorming an intended process (practice) in relation to a process they have previously been through.

Taking photos of key stages of a familiar process and getting students to organise them so that they illustrate process.

Photos or images of the resources students used to undertake a process/practice.

Structured reflection across all aspects of the practice students undertook to develop a Technological Outcome.

Have students order the photos so that the resources are in the sequence in which they undertook their process/ practice.

Have students describe or draw pictures to explain the practice they undertook and the resources they used to do this.

Describe the steps they have to do to complete their outcome.

Flow chart template with broad categories of the steps to go through to produce the outcome.

Deconstruct activity of a process that students are familiar with e.g. putting shoes on, making toast.

Think , Pair, Share activity to describe the parts of the process they might go through to develop a Technological Outcome.

Give one, get one activity to describe the part of the process they might go through to develop a Technological Outcome.

Students to complete the template describing and drawing each step of the practice they intend to undertake, and identifying the key resources they could use.

Using a flow chart template get students to draw and explain the steps required to complete the process.

Think individually about the steps in the process – moving around class/group have each student give an idea and receive one back from someone else in the class/group.

Identify the resources they could/will use to complete their outcome.

Photos of the resources and/or samples of the resources students could possibly use to develop a Technological Outcome.

Brainstorm the likely practice required to develop a Technological Outcome to an identified issue. Teacher to record what students already know and where necessary fill in the gaps.

Identify the resources which are the Odd One Out.

Resource Grouping – pictures of, or tangible resources which students group according to the stages they would follow to undertake their practice of developing a Technological Outcome e.g. research resources, concept generation resources, making resources, testing resources etc.

Students to:

  • select the resources in the order they would use them to develop their Technological Outcome
  • explain why they have selected them for use in this order.

Have tangible resources and get students to describe which ones are the odd one out that might not be appropriate for developing a Technological Outcome to an identified (and fully explored) issue.

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Supporting Learning Environment Level 2

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • establishes the need or opportunity and defines the conceptual statement through negotiation with the students.
  • guides students to identify attributes for an appropriate outcome.
  • structures students' Technological Practice through a series of linked learning experiences (both pre-planned and responsive) to provide opportunity for knowledge and skill development, and encourage student trialling and refinement of skills and understandings.
  • provides a selection of resources, to support students to develop their outcome.
  • provides students with an overview of the key stages they will undertake during their Technological Practice.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Identify and record (in a way others can interact with) the next key stages, explaining their role to complete their outcome.

Game play – "What comes next?"

Record on template and peer critique using a bank of guided questions.

Give students a set of photographs of a sequence of steps undertaken to develop a Technological Outcome, with a missing bits at the end – students to contribute either next possible step or what the finished outcome would be. Repeat activity but with a step (s) missing within the middle of the sequence and have student determine what the missing step is.

Use a range of known and unknown technological products so that students can explain them:

  • from their experience in interacting with them
  • through 'predicting' what they are used for and where, who uses them, how they were made, etc.

Use a template with stems for students to complete e.g. Outcomes will:
be used to .... This will .......
be used by .... to ........
will enable/allow .... by ......
was made by ....... using .......resources/equipment.

Identify the resources that would be suitable to complete their outcome. Students complete a template to record from a bank of resources (pictures and/or tangible) those that they think they will need to produce their Technological Outcome to meet agreed attributes. Provide a range of pictures of and/or tangible resources for students to see and interact with to determine the resources they will use and the order in which they will use them.

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Supporting Learning Environment Level 3

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • establishes the need or opportunity and defines the conceptual statement through negotiation with the students.
  • guides students to identify attributes for an appropriate outcome.
  • structures students' Technological Practice through a series of linked learning experiences (both pre-planned and responsive) to provide opportunity for knowledge and skill development, and encourage student trialling and refinement of skills and understandings.
  • provides a selection of resources, to support students to develop their outcome.
  • provides students with an overview of the key stages they will undertake during their Technological Practice.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Explain the importance of key stages and the reasons specific resources were used in their development work to date.

Provide students with a description (video, photos and/or flow chart) of the key stages used within Technological Practice to develop a Technological Outcome. Students to identify what would happen if (in relation to a process(es) and/or use of resources – tools, materials).

Buddy chat.

Video clip(s) of the Technological Practice used to develop a Technological Outcome.

Review photos of previous Technological Practice and identify the key stages followed within this.

Students explain the consequences if a particular key stage was not undertaken within the practice that was used to develop the Technological Outcome and/or if a resource was not used.

Deconstruct the practice that was used to develop a Technological Outcome to identify the key stages followed and the resources that were used – record on a flow chart template.
Students to identify the key stages followed to develop the Technological Outcome and the resources that were used. Record these stages and resources used on a flow chart template.

Identify the resources that were used and record these on blank cards beside the appropriate photos. Use this sequence of photos and resources as a class planning tool on the wall to structure/ inform next practice.

Identify and explain links between past and current activities and identify implications for future planning decisions.

Students to complete a key stages timeline for the Technological Practice they undertook to develop a previous Technological Outcome.

Students asked to compare their previous practice used to develop a Technological Outcome with their current practice.

Students analyse the Technological Practices undertaken by another person (senior student) and from this determine the key stages that could be used to develop their own Technological Outcome.

Alongside this timeline record the practice they intend to follow to develop their next outcome.

Students to focus on identifying similarities and differences.

Students to focus on identifying those practices that could be used and/or refined into their own practice and those that are additional which need to be included in order to allow the development of their outcome.

Plan, explain and record ideas for future activities to support the completion of their outcome.

Class/group brainstorm – GANTT charts to consider next key stage and the resources necessary to complete it in terms of time, tools, materials, people etc.

Using a class completed developed GANTT chart – students record the changes (and explain reasons for these changes) for the Technological Practice they undertook to develop their Technological Outcome.

Group discussion/decision making session(s) to consider and agree on way forward when developing a Technological Outcome.

Teacher provides a GANTT chart template and guides students through the process of completing it.

Students to present to group/class what they have done to date and seek feedback on the best way forward in terms of the practice they should undertake to develop their outcome.

Identify key resources suitable to complete their outcome.

Students provided with a total list of the resources that could be used to develop a Technological Outcome to address a need or opportunity – students invited to remove those resources not crucial to the development of their outcome.

Provide students with a directed brief (e.g. develop a nutritious after school snack using scone dough as an initial base) with a list of the resource available to develop an Technological Outcome that addresses it.

From the available resources students/groups choose the resources they will use (e.g. ingredients, utensils etc.) and produce an outcome that addresses the directed brief. Once outcome completed, class discusses – what were the key resources used to produce the outcome, how did those used differ between students/groups, how do the outcomes themselves differ between students/groups due to the different resources used.

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Supporting Learning Environment Level 4

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • establishes the context and issue for students to undertake Technological Practice
  • provides learning experiences to enable students to successfully structure their own practice in order to develop an appropriate outcome.
  • supports students in accessing resources.
  • provides opportunities for ongoing stakeholder/s feedback to students.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Explain and reflect on key stages and critical resources from their previous practice, and evaluate this in order to identify implications for future activities within their current practice.

In groups students revisit a previous planning tool they have used and discuss the usefulness of this tool as a means of recording and informing the practice undertaken.

Look at a selection of planning tools used by others (senior students) to see the consistencies and differences between them.

Students encouraged to reflect on such things as the actual time it took to complete each key stage of the practice, how useful the planning was in informing the next stage of practice etc.

Students to identify:

  • similarities and differences between the planning tools that were used,
  • where within the practice they were used
  • how the tool(s) were used to inform the practice undertaken.
Identify and explain links between their past and current Practice in terms of how they could impact on (either assist of impair) the development of an outcome that reflects the brief requirements.

Use planning tool(s) to plan overall practice and structure key stages – base this planning on knowledge gained from undertaking previous planning actions.

Class discussion on the most appropriate planning tool for different aspects of current practice.

Students encouraged to reflect on those tools that worked well and those that didn't from aspects of their previous planning practice. Use understandings developed to inform selection o planning tools for next practice.

Focus discussion on identifying those tools most suitable for:

  • initial planning of intended key stages,
  • planning for resource management and activities within identified key stages
  • planning for outcome testing and evaluation etc.
Plan to ensure stakeholder feedback is assessed and used to inform development work – particularly material selection.

Strategies for gaining quality stakeholder feedback.

Group discussion to consider and agree on best strategy(ies) for obtaining stakeholder feedback and most appropriate tool(s) for analysing this feedback.

Review others practice (senior students and/or practicing technologists) to identify the planning strategies/tools that were used to obtain stakeholder feedback – analyse these to identify if they allowed quality feedback to be received.

Students to present to group/class the strategy(ies) they are considering using to obtain stakeholder feedback – discussion should focus on the merits of the strategy, identifying likely responses and therefore the appropriate tool for analysing the feedback.

Plan ahead to ensure completion and undertake effective documentation to support their practice. Analyse others practice to identify how they planned ahead and documented their practice. Use case studies off the Technology Online website of previous students practice and/or the practices of practicing technologists.
Select and access key resources (including knowledge and skills) required to complete their outcome.

Teacher questioning students/groups about the list of resources they have identified as needing in order to undertake Technological Practice to develop a Technological Outcome.

Students to sequence photos of someone else's (senior students and/or a practicing technologists) Technological Practice.

Question students/groups about how their identified resources in terms of:

  • when (what stage of their practice) they will require the resource(s )
  • if they have the appropriate level of knowledge and skill to use the resource and if not how they will access it
  • if the resource identified is the most appropriate to complete this key stage of their practice
  • what will happen to the resources once the key stage is finished, etc.

Beside each photos students to identify the:

  • resources that where necessary to enable them to carry out their practice
  • aspects that needed management; for example, safety, storage, resources requiring handling in a specific way, disposal of waste etc.

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Supporting Learning Environment Level 5

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • establishes the context and issue from which students can identify a need or opportunity.
  • provides learning experiences to enable students to successfully structure their own practice in order to develop an appropriate outcome.
  • supports students in accessing resources.
  • provides opportunities for students to access key stakeholders in a safe and appropriate manner.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Analyse their previous practice and the planning and organisational practices of others.

Revisit a previous planning tool students have used and discuss the usefulness of this tool to record the practice undertaken.

Analyse a selection of planning tools used by others (senior students and/or practicing technologists) to see the consistencies and differences between them.

Students to reflect on such things as the actual time taken to complete each key stages of the practice, how useful the planning was in informing next stage etc.

Students to identify:

  • similarities and differences between the planning tools used
  • where within the practice they were used
  • how the tool(s) were used to inform the practice undertaken.
Make informed projections about future activities and explore implications for planning and the selection of planning tools.

Use Gantt charts to plan overall practice and structure key stages – base this planning on knowledge gained from undertaking previous planning actions.

Class discussion on the most appropriate planning tool for different aspects of practice. For examples, tools suitable for:

  • initial planning of intended key stages,
  • planning for resource management and activities within an identified key stage etc.
Students encouraged to reflect on what worked well and what didn't in aspects of their previous planning practice. Use understandings developed to inform next planning.
Use planning tools to support, document and justify ongoing planning decisions in terms of the need or opportunity their brief is being developed to address.

Students encouraged to recall and reflect on the planning tools they have used in their past work to identify strengths/weaknesses and contextual application.

Provide students with a selection of photos of different stages of the development of a Technological Outcome outcomes (e.g. mixing and blending of ingredients for a muffin, identifying type/style of garment suitable to be worn at an identified special event) and a range of planning tools.

Have students match the outcome to an appropriate planning tool and justify their choice. Teacher questioning will ensure deeper thinking through using three storey intellect or Blooms taxonomies.
Select and manage resources required for specific activities within their practice to complete their outcome. Teacher questioning students about the list of resources they will need to organise in order to undertake Technological Practice to develop a Technological Outcome.

Question students about such things as:

  • appropriateness of the identified resources
  • how they will manage the resources during their practice
  • when they will need to access the resource(s) for each stage
  • what will happen to the resource(s) once the key stage is finished, etc.

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Supporting Learning Environment Level 6

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • provides a context and issue for the students to undertake Technological Practice.
  • provides learning experiences to enable students to successfully structure their own practice in order to develop an appropriate outcome.
  • supports students in accessing resources.
  • provides opportunities for students to access key and the wider community stakeholders in a safe and appropriate manner.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Carry out ongoing critical analyses
and evaluation of their own and
others' past and current planning and
organisational practices.

Model, using a Technology Online case study, how to critically evaluate someone else's Technological Practice, including their use of planning tools.

Students critically analyse own past planning and organisational practice.

Critically evaluate the practice of others (and own) focussing on such things as:

  • their(own) overall planning and project management
  • means of ensuring the fitness for purpose of their(own) past outcome
  • strategies for gaining access to stakeholder feedback
  • resource management and how this was planned for.
Make informed projections about
future activities that are supported
by dynamic planning tools in order
to document and justify planning
decisions, in terms of the physical
and social environment in which their
brief is embedded.

Use of physical and virtual, planning and modelling techniques

Identify the strengths and weaknesses of different planning tools.

Focus on encouraging students to project and substantiate their judgments about the success or otherwise of the expected outcome(s) when they are placed in their intended physical and social environment using the physical and/or virtual planning and modelling techniques.

Focus on answering questions such as:

  • what is the tool and how is it best used?
  • what is the likely information the planning tool will elicit when used in practice?
  • what key stage within practice is this planning tool most suited to in terms of providing informed projections
  • what impact is the information gained through the use of this tool likely to have on future practice
  • how much Iteration is necessary between the planning tool and the ongoing development of the Technological Outcome to ensure an outcome(s) is fit for purpose.
Justify the management of resources
to undertake Technological Practice,
in terms of the physical and social
environment in which their practice is occurring, as well as the opportunities and/or constraints resulting from the specific practice they undertake

Explore contexts and issues.

Explore the use of a range of evaluative tools.

Literacy development – using linking words to provide justifications.

Justifying the management of resources in terms of the physical and social environment in which they are used.

Provide students with a variety of scenarios (contexts) which they can critically evaluate to identify the issues that provide opportunity for the undertaking of Technological Practice to derive a feasible solution. Students undertake feasibility studies on these issues and determine the likely Technological Practice required to develop an outcome that addresses the issue.

Evaluation tools could include:

  • PMI
  • CAMPER (consequences, actions, minify /modify/magnify, put into another use, eliminate, reverse)
  • SWOT/SWOB analysis
  • Waterfall questions
  • What if questions
  • Ryan's thinkers keys
  • Evaluating dice – with key questions
  • Question Box – with key questions (colour code for different levels) see Blooms taxonomy.

Encourage students to use linking language such as:

  • as a result of
  • because
  • therefore .....

Refer to effective Literacy strategies book for Secondary Schools.

Students to critically evaluate:

  • others practice (case study and/or observation of a practicing technologists practice) to determine how well they managed resources within the physical and environmental location in which they used.
  • own past practice to determine how well the resources were managed within the physical and environmental location in which they used.

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Supporting Learning Environment Level 7

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • provides a context for students to undertake Technological Practice.
  • supports student learning as they structure and plan activities as required to enable them to undertake their Technological Practice to develop an appropriate outcome.
  • supports students in accessing resources.
  • provides opportunities for students to access key and wider community stakeholders in a safe and appropriate manner.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Carry out ongoing critical analyses and evaluation of their own and others' past and current planning, and self and team management practices. Critically analyse others (practicing technologist) Technological Practice through evaluation of case studies and/or their actual practice as observed/presented.

Critically evaluate the practice of others focussing on such things as:

  • the planning and project management tools they use
  • planning they undertook to enable the fitness for purpose of their outcome to be verified
  • management practices they used to ensure valid stakeholder feedback was accessed
  • planning they used to manage the efficient use of resources.
Make informed projections about
future activities that are supported by dynamic planning tools developed to manage, document and justify planning decisions in terms of the physical and social environment in which their brief is embedded.

Use of physical and virtual, planning and modelling techniques.

Determine the likely accuracy/validity of projections based on findings obtained from use of planning/modelling tools.

Focus on encouraging students to project and substantiate their judgments about the success or otherwise of the expected outcome(s) when they are placed in their intended physical and social environment using the physical and/or virtual planning and modelling techniques.

Focus on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each planning/modelling tool in terms of allowing accurate and valid projections to be made.

Organise learning experiences to gain new knowledge and skills identified in planning as being needed to develop their outcome. These are germane to strategies already identified.  
Justify the management of resources to undertake Technological Practice in terms of the physical and social environment in which their practice is occurring, as well as the opportunities and/or constraints resulting from the specific practice they undertake.

Exploring contexts and issues.

Explore the use of a range of evaluative tools.

Literacy development – using linking words to provide justifications.

Justifying the management of resources in terms of the physical and social environment in which they are used.

Provide students with a variety of scenarios (contexts) which they can critically evaluate to identify the issues that provide opportunity for the undertaking of Technological Practice to derive a feasible solution. Students undertake feasibility studies on these issues and determine the likely Technological Practice required to develop an outcome that addresses the issue.

Evaluation tools could include:

  • PMI
  • CAMPER (consequences, actions, minify /modify/magnify, put into another use, eliminate, reverse)
  • SWOT/SWOB analysis
  • Waterfall questions
  • What if questions
  • Ryan's thinkers keys
  • Evaluating dice – with key questions
  • Question Box – with key questions (colour code for different levels) see Blooms taxonomy

Encourage students to use linking language such as:

  • as a result of
  • because
  • therefore .....

Refer to effective Literacy Strategies book for Secondary Schools.

Critically evaluate:

  • others practice (case study and/or observation of a practicing technologists practice) to determine how well they managed resources within the physical and environmental location in which they used. – if their management practices made an impact on the sustainability o the resources used and the outcome itself
  • own past practice to determine how well they managed the resources within the physical and environmental location in which they used.

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Supporting Learning Environment Level 8

The Teacher:

  • establishes an environment that encourages and supports student innovation.
  • supports students as they undertake initial research to establish an appropriate context and issue.
  • supports student learning as they structure and plan activities as required to enable them to undertake their Technological Practice to develop an appropriate outcome.
  • supports students in accessing resources.
  • provides opportunities for students to access key and wider community stakeholders in a safe and appropriate manner.
focussed Learning Teaching Strategy Explanation
Develop an initial plan that allows for extensive exploratory work to establish a suitable context and issue, and subsequent need or opportunity to be determined and evaluated. Strategies/techniques for undertaking feasibility studies to determine a suitable context and issue, and subsequently identify a need or opportunity.

Explore the use of strategies/techniques such as:

  • mind mapping tools
  • graphic organisers
  • compare and contrast.

Focus on answering questions such as:

  • is the context likely to provide an opportunity to develop a Technological Outcome that has the potential to be fit for purpose for the physical and social environment in which it will be placed?
  • what constraints (e.g. political, social, moral, ethics, economic) will likely impact on the Technological Practice undertaken to develop a Technological Outcome, and the outcomes themselves?
  • is the context providing opportunities for the student to engage in appropriate learning activities that increase their breadth, and depth of knowledge and skills?
Carry out ongoing critical analyses and evaluation of their own and others' past and current planning, and self and team management practice. Students should be aware of the integrative nature of these indicators.

Students encouraged to critically evaluate their planning practice to determine its effectiveness in informing next steps. This evaluation should focus on answering questions such as:

  • is the planning and management tools supporting informed projections as to where to next?
  • what information is missing to allow informed projections?
  • Is there a better means of/tool for planning and managing that would allow a more efficient use of resources and better projections to occur?
Make informed projections about future activities that are supported by use of dynamic planning tools developed to manage, document and justify planning decisions in terms of the physical and social environment in which their brief is embedded. Strategies for future projection – use of creative thinking strategies.

Examples include:

  • What if questions
  • De Bono
  • Inquiry learning strategies
  • Organisations of think tanks
  • Secondary Futures resource.
Organise and evaluate learning
experiences to gain new knowledge
and skills identified in planning as being needed to develop their outcome.
These are germane to strategies already identified.  
Critically evaluate the management
of learning activities, opportunities
and/or constraints resulting from
specific practices undertaken, and the management of resources in an ongoing manner through-out Technological Practice, and justify these in terms of the physical and social environment, in which their practice is occurring to address the context and issue.
Critically evaluate others (practicing technologist) Technological Practice through analysis of case studies and/or their actual practice as observed/presented.

Critically evaluate the practice of others focussing on such things as:

  • management tools used
  • the opportunities created and/or constraints resulting from specific practices undertaken,
  • management of resources and how/if this was undertaken in an ongoing manner through-out Technological Practice
  • justifications provided for the planning and management practices adopted in terms of the physical and social environment in which the practice took place
  • how they ensured that their practice was always focussed on addressing the context and issue.

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