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Ministry of Education.
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There are 128 results.

  • Question

    For AS91340, the achievement criteria "describes the way elements of design are used within the selected design movement/era", do student have to describe both function and aesthetics of the design movement or is it functions and/or aesthetics?


    Explanatory note 5 of the standard states:

    "Elements of design are derived from the key design principles of aesthetics and function. These may include but are not limited to: shape, form, rhythm, balance, proportion, colour and contrast, durability, stability, and flexibility/rigidity." 

    It therefore seems that, to adequately describe the way elements of design are used, students should be considering a range of elements that relate to both aesthetics and function. It is suggested that a request for clarification form is submitted to NZQA for further clarification on this query. 

  • Question

    Can you point me in the direction of a resource(s) which will define the key terms from AS91074: Describe, Explain, Discuss, Compare and Contrast.


    For all standards, these terms are used according to their common meaning. Describe means to give an account of something, to say what it looks like, or what it does to give details about these things. A description answers the questions, "what is it like?", and "what does it do?" Explain means to give a reason or reasons – an explanation answers the question “why” or “how does that work?". Discuss means to examine something in detail so as to reach a decision. This usually means that more than one perspective is put forward and actively considered. So as part of discussions we may get compare and contrast.

    Further details of how these terms should be applied are also found in the statements that follow in the standard criteria. For example, at achieved, "Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts from computer science" involves: describing the key characteristics and roles of algorithms, programs and informal instructions.

    The NZQA Technology home page links to exemplars for Achievement, Merit, and Excellence for all standards. More resources for 91074 and other standards can be searched. The assessment reports under Reports and Schedules also provide further information on the interpretation of the standard.

  • Question

    I notice that the DVC standard 91064 (orthographic drawings) says that the drawings should comply with NZS1100.101 Technical Drawing Principles. However, according to Standards New Zealand this standard has been withdrawn. Can someone please clarify for me whether I can still use this standard or, if not, which standard I should be using instead? P.S. I am new to teaching this subject so apologies if the answer is obvious! Thanks very much.


    This status means that it has been withdrawn without replacement. If a document is superseded, then it means that there is a more up to date relevant version of that standard. 

    However, this is not the case for the NZS/AS 1100.101:1992. You can still purchase and follow the document, but due to the age of the standard, we cannot list it as "current" as the all of the information contained may not be 100% correct now due to the publication date.

  • Question

    I am planning to do this tech standard 91643 but am ambivalent about doing cream puffs. I could do the pies but what restrictions are there on the processes. For example, could we make Mexican enchiladas from scratch – tortilla making to sauces and chili usage? Or is it restrictive?


    The advice given to teachers in the TKI assessment resource for product selection for assessment against this standard is:

    For the purposes of this resource the product is a cream puff with custard filling (made using eggs) and chocolate enrobing. However, you could specify any product that requires complex procedures to make a product by combining and/or manipulating materials. Take into account cost, timing, and safety considerations when selecting a product.

    Other suitable food products include:

    • a product using student-made flaky pastry (for example, a vegetarian/meat pie)
    • a product using student-made filo pastry (such as spanakopita or baklava)
    • a boiled confectionery, for example, pulled toffee, Turkish delight made with starch rather than gelatine, a Rocky Road bar (including making the marshmallows and fruit jellies); pain au chocolate; a baked Alaska (including making the ice cream and sponge base).

    The product should initially be unfamiliar to the student and include diverse processing operations with the potential to fail if incorrectly processed. 

    Explanatory note 7 states "Complex procedures are those that require a diverse range of processing operations to be performed in a particular order based on knowledge of techniques, operations, and testing feedback."

    The purpose of this standard is to assess the student’s ability to set up a process and the associated testing in a similar way to that which would be expected in industrial food processing however in a classroom setting.

    The product needs to require the student to manage a diverse range of processing operations. Making tortillas is generally a 3–4 step operation (for example, Simply Recipes, How to make corn tortillas).

    The sauce processing is generally a straightforward operation and the specifications for a successful meat sauce can have a broad range for acceptability, which is not likely to often lead to incorrect processing and failure. Students may also already be familiar with making a meat sauce for similar types of products.

    The amount of chili added to a recipe is a decision required about the quantity of an ingredient that is required for the product and is not considered a process.

    It is suggested that you consider other products as outlined in the resource.

    There are 3 other ask an expert question that provide extensive advice on the teaching, learning, and assessment required to assess against this standard.



  • Question

    I have a level 3 class doing AS91624 Demonstrate understanding of a structural system. The TKI example on timber-framed buildings directs you to the NZ building code 3604 and these are the current techniques used in New Zealand for NZ sourced timbers. My class are researching structures built with a global product that called ETFE (ethylene tetrafluroethylene) roofing material, which was used as the transparent, polymer roofing material at the new Forsythe Barr Stadium in Dunedin. The configuration of the roofing structure are customised for a particular span and height and not common knowledge as the code predominantly provides timber specs. Do you have any reference material that would explain the steel configurations required for large spanning structures? Because the EFTE polymer is a global material can it be considered as a current technique used in New Zealand?


    This standard is very broad in terms of possible contexts, but students must select structures for which detailed information can be obtained without too much difficulty. This information will need to include not only drawings and/or first-hand observations but also why crucial design and engineering decisions were made.

    The AS is about understanding structures as systems – how they are designed to maintain their integrity given the various forces that impact on them. Students are not restricted to current techniques used in New Zealand (that is just part of the context setting in the assessment resource), or to New Zealand structures.

    The context used in the TKI assessment resource is the timber framed New Zealand house. This has the great advantage that local examples can almost certainly be found and examined first hand, and that many of the system requirements are detailed in the building code. Even so, as the AR suggests, students will need “access to visiting speakers such as architects, builders, and council building inspectors”. This is because it is not enough for them to second-guess why things are done the way they are – they need to understand the principles involved.

    The building code exists only to codify the principles by which a house can be soundly constructed using commonly available materials. As long as a house is built using these principles, there is no need to engage an engineer. For more elaborate structures (such as bridges, multi-storey buildings, or stadiums) there is no such code; engineers must use complex mathematics and physics, sophisticated modelling techniques, and highly detailed technical data to determine that a proposed design will not collapse as a result of either internal or external stresses/loads.

    So there is unlikely to be any off-the-shelf information of the kind that you are looking for. You could try contacting the engineering firm responsible for a local structure that uses ETFE and see if they have information that they are willing to share. You may also be able to arrange a site visit and a Q & A session with one or more of the engineers responsible.

    Note that for merit the AS requires the students to “evaluate the structural integrity of a structural system” and for excellence, to “discuss and justify possible ways of increasing the structural integrity of a structural system”. Both are quite big asks, so it is important to discourage students from selecting structures that are too complex or for which they will not be able to access the information they need.

  • Question

    Can you advise how many units minimum have to be made for AS91056 (1.13) please? The multi-unit manufacturing standard.


    Students may have already produced a single technological outcome for a particular end user as part of another assessment. This could be used as a starting point for this assessment.

    It may not be necessary for students to manufacture large numbers of individual items.

    The intention of the standard is to assess whether the students can implement a manufacturing process that is beyond, for example, one tray of biscuits to a larger run that ensures consistency of the product (for example, if they made 1000 biscuits the specified process would result in all of the biscuits being uniform enough to meet the specifications).

    In some instances it will be possible to make a smaller number of the product to test the specified manufacturing process and then modify as necessary. For example, a system could be set up to manufacture cape cod chairs and manufacturing five chairs could provide sufficient information to refine the manufacturing process to ensure future consistency in the product. It is likely that the more stable the material and the simpler it is to control the stages of production the less numbers of product will need to be produced to establish an effective manufacturing system.

  • Question

    I have level 2 students working on AS91345 Implement advanced procedures using textile materials to make a specified product with special features this year and wanted to know if they were to make a skirt with two layers (lining and a chiffon layer) with gathers or pleats at the waist onto the waistband if french seams, rolled hems on the chiffon and the gathering and pleating would that be advanced enough?


    Explanatory Note 5 (EN5) states :Advanced procedures are those that require advanced skills and the student to select and perform techniques that need scheduling to achieve the special features.

    Explanatory Note 7 states: Special features are those that rely on the application of advanced skills.  These include but are not limited to: style features, such as set in sleeve, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pockets and/or decorative features such as pin tucking, embroidery, and shirring and/or structural features such as 3D felting and combining different fibres in felting and different materials, for example, nuno felting. 

    Inserting the two layers of the skirt into a waistband could be considered a special feature that would require scheduling (that is, the student would need to determine what order this should be done in order to achieve the special feature).

    Creating french seams and a rolled hem would not require scheduling (EN5), or the application of advanced skills as indicated by the examples given in Explanatory Note 7.

    However, if the student inserted an invisible zip into the chiffon lined skirt, then they would have implemented another advanced procedure.

  • Question

    Teaching Carpentry levels 1 to 3 with BCITO and Unitech: With parent permission and teacher demonstration can years 11 to 13 students use the Miter Saw for their project work. The machine is not mentioned in new Technology Safety Document.


    The answer is a bit more complicated than yes or no.

    Safety in Technology Education: A Guidance Manual for New Zealand Schools is a guide. Its purpose is to assist teachers, principals, and boards of trustees to provide a safe working environment for students and staff as required by National Administration Guideline (NAG) 5. The list of machines in Appendix 5 of the guidance manual recognises that some pieces of equipment have less potential for harm than others, but no machine is safe independently of how it is maintained or used. 

    Schools must therefore have risk management and prevention systems in place to prevent unsafe classroom practices, minimise the chance of accident, and ensure that if an accident does occur it is not as a result of some negligence or failure on the part of the teacher or school. These systems should be in line with the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. 

    Further useful guidance can be found on the Worksafe New Zealand website and the Construction industry - Guidelines for the provision of facilities and general safety in the construction industry webpage.

    Although not listed in Appendix 5, senior students should certainly be able to use a drop/mitre saw in a school workshop provided there is an established culture of care, students have been given specific and appropriate instruction in how to use it safely, and the board and principal are satisfied that the school has taken every reasonable step to fulfil its duty of care. 

  • Question

    AS91621 (3.21) Implement complex procedures using textile materials to make a specified product: What does managing the inclusion of structural or style features, for example, tucks, pockets, opening, closures, weather proof storage mean?


    Managing the inclusion of structural or style features means that complexity in the procedures for the textile product has been added as a result of where and how the feature will be included.  

    For example if pin tucks are to be added as a style feature the student could be:

    • ensuring they know how to do pin tucking, the choices available in machine equipment and stitches to do this
    • determining where the pin tucks will be applied to ensure they are aesthetically pleasing and flattering, how many pin tucks, the width of each pin tuck etc.
    • deciding the best stage of construction at which to apply the pin tucks. For example, in some instances the pin tucks may be applied to the fabric prior to cutting out the pattern pieces. In other instances the pin tucks will be accurately positioned to shape a garment.
  • Question

    Am I able to use (L2) AS 91356 Develop a Conceptual design to design for a hard materials project and then AS 91344 Implement advanced procedures using resistant materials to make a specified product with special features to build it? I have heard previously that the two standards should not be run within the same project. Also are there any examples of L2 and L3 courses that schools run posted anywhere?


    AS 91344 Implement advanced procedures using resistant materials to make a specified product requires the student to construct a specified product that includes at least two special features (one aesthetic and one structural). In addition, its construction requires the consistent application of accepted conventions and use of advanced craft skills. The agreed specifications for the product to be made must allow these requirements to be met. 

    The specifications could describe a product that the student had developed a conceptual design for, and had been assessed for AS 91356 Develop a conceptual design for an outcome. You would need to check that these specifications allowed the student access to AS 91344, and adjust accordingly if this is not the case.

     Examples of course outlines for Year 11 and 12 can be found at: Planning programmes and units of work: Course outlines

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