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Ministry of Education.
Kaua e rangiruatia te hāpai o te hoe; e kore to tātou waka e ū ki uta

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There are 148 results.

  • Question

    Kia ora, Could you please point me in the right direction to find the formula for student:space ratio for intermediate school technology workshops (food, hard materials, fabric etc) please. Ngā mihi,


    The Safety in technology education: A guidance manual for New Zealand schools is found in the: Practice framework resources for health and safety.

    Within Safety in technology education there are the following statements:
    On page 12, the National Administration Guideline 4 (NAG 4) states that school boards of trustees (BOT), is required to:

    • provide a safe physical and emotional environment for students
    • comply in full with any legislation currently in force or that may be developed to ensure the safety of students and employees.

    On page 9 there is also a reference to the work environment. A person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) in a school is the board of trustees.

    "36 Primary duty of care

    (3) Without limiting subsection (1) or (2), a PCBU must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, —

    (a) the provision and maintenance of a work environment that is without risks to health and safety."

    On page 83, appendix 2 provides a safety planning template. This refers to Regulation 13.

    "See Regulation 13. If the space is inadequate for the number of students involved, how will you organise for all students to undertake the activity safely?"

    Regulation 13 was revoked in May 2017 after the guidelines were published. This regulation has been replaced by Regulation 6 which is less specific in nature. The current legislation aims to enable PCBUs to consider their environment, workers, and others and enable individual judgements to be made in light of individual circumstances.

    Within the Safety in technology education there are no specific statements about space required per student working in a particular technological area. It is suggested that you discuss your health and safety concerns regarding the classroom spaces with your principal. The safety planning template could provide a useful framework on which to base these discussions.

  • Question

    In AS91890 students have to propose a digital technologies outcome. There is no mention of designing or developing the actual outcome, yet in both TKI tasks there is a reference to the actual outcome. Both have the following lines "6. Write a brief outline of the digital technologies outcome you propose to develop. This can be a partially developed or a completed outcome." Surely there is no need for "a partially developed or complete outcome" as we are looking for a proposal - a description of what the outcome will be. The next stage would be to design the outcome and then make it. Could you please clarify? Thanks


    Standard AS91890 is all about conducting the inquiry to make the proposal for the digital technologies outcome. There is no requirement that the outcome is actually made, however most teachers would pair it with one of the other standards to assess that actual outcome.

  • Question

    Would creating a patchwork fabric in order to make a garment count as a special feature for AS91345?


    Creating the garment from patchworked material will likely meet the standard at level 2 in terms of decorative features and of using and arranging different sized material pieces.

    The student would still need to add structural or style features (as per explanatory note 7) to the garment to fully meet the standard.

    If the student was creating a patchwork quilt, for example, the application of the layers with batting and sewing would allow this to occur in terms of a structural feature. (This is likely level 3 depending on the patchwork skills used.)

  • Question

    Can you please provide a more detailed list of approved special features? I am struggling to find patterns that are modern that my students will wear and enjoy making which tick the current boxes of the listed special features as outlined in (7). Set in sleeves is about as close as I can get. Patterns my students enjoy using are Tilly and the Buttons and Papercut patterns.


    When interpreting the special features outlined in explanatory note 7 the level of student skill should be comparable to these examples.

    A jumpsuit – this would not meet the standard criteria as the style and structural features are more closely matched to the criteria for the level 1 NCEA AS 91058, implement basic procedures using textile materials to make a specified product.

    A blazer – this would meet the standard criteria for special features as the pattern includes set in seams and welt pockets.

    A cardigan – the tab front with buttonholes and the shawl collar could be considered one special feature. The cuffs could be considered an advanced technique if they were made from another fabric (rather than knit) and a tailored effect achieved.

    It is important to note in NZQA clarifications for AS 91345 that the students need to research different techniques to construct the special features. From this research they need to select a technique that will allow for a quality outcome and schedule this into the construction plan. They need to consider more than just the guidelines suggested in a commercial pattern to select the technique.

  • Question

    Can you suggest examples of transforming textiles in Textile technology. We have talked about felting. Can you confirm whether adding interfacing is an example of manipulating or transforming.


    There are few examples of transforming textiles readily available as detailed information is required from the manufacturer about the chemical composition of the material to confirm that this has not changed.

    Other materials such as food could provide examples of transformation.

    There is some discussion around these definitions in a previous ask an expert answer on the definition of transformation.

    Adding interfacing to fabric is considered transforming as the performance properties of the material change however the chemical composition of the material remains the same. The material becomes more rigid and stiff with the addition of interfacing, adding body to the garment. Interfacing may also be used to add strength for example when it is used in  an area where buttonholes maybe added.

    Manipulating materials in textiles generally refers to such things as pressing to manage ease, gathering and pleating (to remove fullness) cutting and trimming.

  • Question

    What is a system?


    A technological system, as defined in the technology learning area, is a system that works independently or automatically of human input after it’s been started or switched on. Simple examples of these include a wind-up toy, a popcorn maker, and a toaster. More sophisticated systems include a stove or a computer.

    Technology Online has a section on the technological systems component of the technology learning area. The video in the introduction and the key ideas provide further information on this component.

    See the teaching snapshot exploring technological systems and computational thinking using household appliances to read about investigating technological systems in the classroom. 

  • Question

    How do you translate "Design and Visual Communication" into te reo Māori?


    A translation for "Design and Visual Communication" is Te Whakawhitiwhiti ā-Hoahoa, ā-Atanga. 

  • Question

    I have a student who has trialled a range of materials to inform selection. However, the material (fabric) she has selected to construct her prototype in was not used to complete her prototype. The student tested a range of different materials and then selected a cotton pink polka dot fabric to use for her final prototype. After testing, when she went to purchase the fabric, the fabric store did not have her original selection. She still picked a cotton material with the same properties as the fabric she originally planned to use, however the pattern and colour were completely different from her original selection, changing from a pink polka dot design to a blue striped pattern. She meets all of the other criteria of the standard to gain an excellence but because she did not use the fabric she selected after trialling, does that mean that she fails the standard with a Not Achieved grade?


    See Technology clarifications AS 91047
    When selecting materials and/or components, and tools and equipment, as required for Achieved, some evidence of informed selection is required. For example, informed selection may involve evaluating past and current practices, considering the availability of tools, equipment, and materials, and evaluating fitness for purpose for the nature of the intended outcome.
    For higher grades, students need to undertake trialling to inform the selection of materials and/or components, and techniques and processes.

    The fact that the student was unable to purchase the exact fabric selected through trialling should not limit access to the higher grades. The student would need to provide evidence that further trialling was carried out to take into account any changes required to tools and equipment, and the application of practical techniques as a result of the material change. For example, they may have had to consider matching stripes during construction.

    There will also need to be evidence that colour and print on the material is not a requirement of the brief. If so, the student needs to provide evidence that they have gone back and consulted with the stakeholder and adjusted the brief to ensure that the new material meets the aesthetic requirements.

  • Question

    I need some clarification regarding the AS91370 (2.43). The notes for the standard regarding "advanced techniques" for image editing seems to include web graphics. Does compressing one's images, without any further editing, count towards satisfying this requirement of the standard? The student has carefully ensured that all of the images he was given were reduced in size, bulk compressed using an online tool, and tested for quality before having them inserted in their app (a responsive moodboard app which dynamically reads its data from a mysql database via php, and displays galleries of images).


    The expectation is that the student would use similar techniques as listed in the second bullet point of EN7. Changing the resolution or compression is a NCEA level 1 skill. Doing this in bulk however is evidence for economy for excellence at any level. Unfortunately this standard is showing its age with many of the techniques now made simpler by newer versions of software. The new versions of the level 2 and 3 NCEA digital standards will be available in 2019.

  • Question

    I am embarking on AS91611 Develop a prototype considering fitness for purpose in the broadest sense and will be using a food context in which students are to design a prototype from a given recipe. What is the best way to explain fitness for purpose in the broadest sense in this situation? The context that I am giving to the class is one based on street food. We have a number of pop-up type caravans around Christchurch mostly post earthquakes. As the class is Year 13 I will ask them focus on their age group and get them to develop a product as if they would set up and sell it onsite at school.


    Fitness for purpose in its broadest sense relates to the outcome itself as well as to the practices used to develop the outcome. This is a curriculum level 8 concept and is referred to in the generic achievement standards at NCEA Level 3. Some of the areas students could consider when demonstrating understandings of this concept and/or applying this within practice are shown in the table below. These suggestions should not be considered exhaustive and students will find other ideas that relate to particular outcomes.

    Some teachers have found that, when developing a brief that allows fitness for purpose in the broadest sense, it works well to have students develop specifications for the two aspects. That is, students categorise their specifications as either being for the outcome itself or for the practices to be undertaken to develop the outcome. This helps to reinforce that students must consider more than just fitness for purpose (as is the practice at NCEA Level 2).

    Examining and critiquing the practice of technologists within the framework of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense can also assist students to develop their understandings of this concept. Students could examine and critique the practices of a technologist by inviting a technologist to speak to the class (e.g. a food truck vendor) and/or students in groups interviewing a variety of street food vendor and sharing their findings with the class.

    Fitness for purpose in its broadest sense: Possible considerations Food
    Sustainability of resources

    Do the resources used to make the outcome meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs?

    As part of sustainability we need to also consider the difference between recycling, reusing and upcycling of materials and components. Is there an element of the project that could be addressing:

    • food waste (in production and also food not sold)  
    • composting
    • further processing of already used ingredients into other food (e.g. used oil for frying, vegetable skins)

    What do we know or are able to find out about the production and processing of the food ingredients?

    Will locally grown ingredients be a consideration?


    What preparation of the product can be done away from the pop-up caravan? What will need to be done nearer the time of service? Is this realistic for the vendor?

    How will the product be stored? What limitations will a food truck have in food storage – both in space and equipment?

    Are the storage requirements for the product realistic for a food truck? How easy will this be? Who will do it?

    What is the expected product life?

    Determination of life cycle

    What will be the life cycle be of all of the components of the outcome (food and packaging, serviettes, if applicable)?

    Will there be any opportunities for reuse?

    Ultimate disposal

    What are the plans for disposal of the food product and any packaging when no longer safe for consumption?

    What will the impact on the environment be?

    Practices used in manufacturing

    Where relevant outcomes should comply with legislation, e.g. with Food Safety and intellectual property law and using the ideas of others.

    What are the requirements of a food truck vendor in terms of the Food Act and how do these translate into all stages of the food product development?

    Does the product address any special dietary requirements including allergies?

    What information is provided to the consumer on the nutritional and ingredient content of the food product developed?

    Do the practices comply with expected codes of practice and any relevant legislation both at the site of production and the site of sale?

    Where do the ingredients and other materials originate from and what are the working conditions of employees?

    Are the manufacturing practices used efficient?

    What determinants are used to quantify efficiency and manage yield?

    Food costs and profitability are vital in street food. Listen to: Are food trucks over?

    Is waste minimised, managed, exploited for profit?


    Are there cost/benefit relationships to be considered in developing the outcome?

    Is the proposed product likely to be profitable?

    Are there local food outlets that will be impacted by the street food?

    Are wider unseen costs included in feasibility calculations? What other costs do the street vendors need to consider (rent, power, maintenance of the vehicle, insurance, etc.)?

    Cultural appropriateness of trialling procedures

    Have other cultures or age groups been considered for how they may view the food product and designs and imagery within packaging (if applicable)? How will this impact on their willingness or not to be involved in trialling as a result of this?

    Were cultural beliefs around food choices and behaviour considered when trialling?

    Ethical nature of testing practices

    Ergonomics – was the outcome tested on a range of expected users including those with disabilities?

    Is valid sensory testing for the product carried out?

    Was the outcome tested in the environment that was intended for its use?

    Safety How has safety in the workplace been considered in the methods developed for processing of the food product?

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