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Ministry of Education.
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There are 128 results.

  • Question

    A teacher at our school teaches both a Construction course assessed using Unit Standards and a Multi Materials course using Achievement Standards. The teacher would like to increase the complexity of the technological outcomes being produced for the students who are doing both courses by using the same outcomes in each course. To clarify, for the unit standards they have to manufacture 3 outcomes and their assessment is workbook based. Could those three outcomes also be used as the context for the achievement standards? E.g. conceptual design, brief, prototype? The idea being that the students are not manufacturing more than required and that they could use the time they have available in both courses to create more complex outcomes. I am of the belief that this should not be an issue since the assessments in each course cover different skills and aspects of the design and manufacturing process.


    The intent of the listed unit standards is different to the generic technology standards being considered for assessment purposes. Therefore, there is no issue regarding duplication of assessment. However, the BCATs standards would probably be appropriate to use as assessment tools during the construction phase such as prototyping and/or constructing the outcome. The evidence for the BCATs standards could drop out of the achievement standards. Unit standard (US)12927 and US 25330 could align with AS 91357 and US 24354 and US 24350 could align with AS 91344. The combinations will also depend on the nature of the student’s projects. If existing BCAT’s projects are used, then the assessor needs to ensure that students projects meet the advanced technique criteria of AS 91344. This maybe a good way to offer differentiated assessment to cater for everyone in the class.

  • Question

    Hi there, I'm a new teacher this year. I'm doing the Construction and Mechanical Technologies 2.21; Implement advanced procedures using textile materials to make a specified product with special features with my level 2 students. Can I use Applique and Needle Felting as advanced procedures? One student is doing Nuno felting with a complex blanket stitch - can the blanket stitch be counted as the 2nd advanced technique (it is embroidery). Thanks in advance for your help.


    The standard defines special features and advanced procedures in the standard as per the explanatory notes below:

    Ex 7 Special features are those that rely on the application of advanced skills. These include but are not limited to: style features, such as set in sleeve, fly front, tailored collars and cuffs, welt pockets and/or decorative features such as pin tucking, embroidery, and shirring and/or structural features such as 3D felting and combining different fibres in felting and different materials eg nuno felting. 

    Ex 5 Advanced procedures are those that require advanced skills and the student to select and perform techniques that need scheduling to achieve the special features. 

    All 4 of the techniques are advanced and meet the requirements for the standard. Nuno felting is considered a special feature as it requires the application of advanced features as described in explanatory note 7. The complex blanket stitch could be considered a separate decorative feature. Applique and needle felting would each be considered separate decorative features. 

    In both instances the student would need to provide evidence that they have selected and scheduled the techniques (applied in a certain order) to ensure that they achieved the special features. 

    Students need to select an appropriate technique to use. There may be a variety of ways in which a technique could be applied. This could be done by trialing. Other selection processes such as researching, considering existing experience and skill level and advice from experts could also be used. 

    For scheduling, they should decide what is the best stage of construction to apply these to the garment bag to achieve a quality outcome. They will also need to determine an order in which they will carry out the techniques for their special features –that is nuno felting, needle felting, applying the complex blanket stitch and applique.

  • Question

    Hi there, I am just wondering is it o.k for 1.61- Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used in processing, to use the concept of custards. Students will be given 4 different types of custard to compare and contrast Soft Custards: Creme Anglaise Baked Custards: Crème Brûlée Starch Thickened Custards: pudding Gelatin Set custards: Bavarian Thank you


    Custards would be a suitable food product to explore to develop the understandings required for AS 91083 (1.61) Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used in processing. Students should explore a range of processing operations testing techniques and appropriate safety procedures in processing. It is important to note that the focus of this standard is on the processing and associated testing in making a product and not on the effect that changing ingredients has on the type of product produced. All 4 processing operations must be covered as outlined in explanatory note 4.

    Here are some examples (not an exhaustive list, you and your students will think of others) of custard processing that the students could explore in the 4 operations categories. Each of these techniques will have associated testing:

    one or more of – measuring, shaping, or finishing

    • measuring quantities of ingredients, testing temperature (for both heating and cooling),
    • volume and shape of baking and setting containers to ensure a typical product
    • storage techniques to prevent skin formation on crème anglaise
    • finishing techniques for crème caramel (e.g. blow torch, or using the oven grill)

    one or more of – containment, contamination prevention, or disposal:

    • food safety techniques to prevent contamination when making the various custard types

    one or more of – mixing, extracting, separating, or growing:

    • processing techniques and how these create the different types of custards and their attributes
    • processing techniques to ensure prevention of curdling in different custards

    one or more of – heating, cooling, or reacting

    • heating and cooling techniques used for the different types of custards and how they ensure a typical product
    • the reaction between ingredients to thicken or set the custard

    Testing in food processing provides guidance to help students to understand testing in a classroom environment. This resource highlights the type of qualities that food technologists could identify and test for when processing products.

  • Question

    AS1.60 is focused on assessing a student’s competency in ‘using’ basic procedures to implement a processing operation that enables a specified product to be produced. AS1.61 assesses student understandings of the basic concepts that enable processing to occur. Do both the standards need students to make a product? From what I understand 1.60 is where a student has to produce an outcome to demonstrate competency, were as 1.61 is where a student doesn't have to make a product but can do an investigation/report on a wider concept which compares and contrast difference in processing, safety etc?This could be done through some functional modelling in class.


    Yes, you are correct regarding AS 91082 (1.60) Implement basic procedures to process a specified product -a student should produce an outcome to demonstrate competency.

    For AS 91083 (1.61) Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used in processing students should explore a range of processing operations testing techniques and appropriate safety procedures in processing. Students may find it easier to focus on one product for example bread or cheese or preserves as shown in the NZQA assessment resources for this standard.

    The exemplar for AS 91083 shows the student developing their understandings of processing bread through technological practice. However, this is just one example and students could develop these understandings from multiple learning opportunities. These could include:

    • from their own and other class members, technological practice (including functional modelling.) Class groups could be making different products and sharing their findings with the class.
    • research (this could be carried out individually or in groups and findings shared with the class)
    • industry visits (for example if bread was the focus product a visit could be made to a local baker and understandings gained shared on return to class)

    It is important to note that the focus of this standard is on the processing and associated testing in making a product and not on the effect that changing ingredients has on the type of product produced. All 4 processing operations must be covered as outlined in explanatory note 4.

    For additional information and resources see:

    Connecting with Industry

    There are several video clips here that present information on food processing, testing and food safety in a range of food industries. These include Hinterland Express Old Cottage Cakery, (a food processor providing products for a local environment) Findlay’s Bakeries, (a food processor providing products for a national environment) and Cedenco (a food processor providing products for a global environment).

  • Question

    91057: Implement basic procedures using resistant materials or textile material to make a specified product Would an Electronics project - for example, in which students need to design a printed circuit board, manufacture the printed circuit board, populate and solder components, construct a suitable housing and cable other components such as motors or LCD displays- qualify as a basic procedure to meet the standard? An example could be making a digital clock.


    The construction of the electronic system for the clock would be more accurately assessed against AS91079 Implement basic techniques in constructing a specified electronic and embedded system. The construction of the housing system for the digital clock could be assessed against AS91057 Implement basic procedures using resistant materials or textile material to make a specified product. The specifications for the housing (maybe teacher given or student generated) must meet the requirements of Explanatory note 6 that is:

    Techniques include:

    • one or more of measuring/marking out
    • one or more of sizing/shaping/forming
    • one or more of joining/assembling
    • one or more of finishing/detailing/tuning.
  • Question

    How complex does the prototype need to be when using the prototype standards (91047, 91357,91611). I plan to teach a unit on 3d printing and would like some examples of how 3d printing has been used at L1- 3. For example, would the following brief be acceptable at Level 1: Develop a prototype of a toy with moving parts for children at the local playgroup. The toy must be no bigger than 20cm x 20cm and should be able to stand up on its own.


    The requirements for AS91047 Undertake development to make a prototype to address a brief (see Explanatory note 2) include:

    • selecting and using materials and/or components
    • selecting and using tools and equipment
    • applying practical techniques and processes to make a prototype. 

    Teaching students how to use a 3d printer could be a precursor to enabling students to select (as outlined above), rather than driving the development of the prototype.

    The requirements for the brief for AS91047 (see Explanatory Note 3) state:

    The brief may be provided by the teacher or developed by the student. If the student develops the brief then the teacher must ensure that it provides sufficient guidance to enable the prototype to be developed. The brief used for this standard must allow for a range of outcomes and include a conceptual statement and specifications for the prototype to be evaluated against.

    The brief you suggest could provide more guidance and allow for judgement of fitness for purpose if it had more specifications. For example, these could be around safety, hygiene, the defined age group, the relevant cognitive and or fine motor skills the toy could develop, and/or whatever else the playgroup environment may require. A discussion with stakeholders from the playcentre should enable an authentic conceptual statement and a range of relevant specifications to be presented to students as a starting point.

    At level 3 NCEA AS91611 Develop a prototype considering fitness for purpose in the broadest senserequires that the brief used must allow judgement of an outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense. There have been several other Ask an Expert questions on this concept see - AAE search fitness for purpose in its broadest sense.

    There is also a webcast on “fitness for purpose in its broadest sense” at Team Solutions Wikispace screencasts

    The prototyping standards across the three NCEA levels are used to assess the student's ability to develop a prototype, rather than any complexity of the outcome itself. See Explanatory Note 5 for a definition of a prototype and prototyping as used for these standards.

    A prototype is a finished outcome that is ready to be trialled in situ. It is developed through technological practice and is reflective of accepted techniques and tolerances, and safety and legal responsibilities. Prototyping is the trialling of the prototype to gain evidence for the evaluation of the outcome’s fitness for purpose in its intended physical and social environment (context).

    This definition is similar across all of the 3 standards mentioned.

  • Question

    I'd like some clarification about AS91634, please. In particular, what does it mean when it says (EN2) “explaining why content needs to be manipulated to be used across media types" EN5 says that "Media types include: text, web languages, audio, video, graphics, animation or still images." This suggests that the standard is talking about processes such as turning text into audio (screen readers), web languages to video (??), still images to web languages etc. Most of these pairings sound crazy. EN8 gives examples of presenting content across different media. One example is presenting “web content on screen and in print or on mobile devices”. Does this mean that comparing web content presented on screen with web content presented on a mobile device is sufficient to address this part of the standard?


    The intent of this part of the standard is that students should be able to explain why similar media types such as video or still images may need to be manipulated for different outcomes at achieved.

    An example is that resolutions will be different depending on the use

    For instance, an image used in a large adverting poster may have a resolution of 10 pixels per inch (PPI) or less, an Image on a website typically would be 75 PPI and in a magazine 200 PPI.  

    Similarly, video delivered to a web browser and to a phone will have different characteristics.

    As the standard requires two digital media (EN3) then it is quite conceivable the student could explain why one digital media type is used in differing ways (such as a web site and a print media.) The focus should be on the depth of explanation rather than a large number of media types. 

  • Question

    How do different forms of modelling provide valid and reliable evidence from different stakeholder groups?


    Depending on the decisions that the technologist is needing to make at the time, modelling may be in different forms for different stakeholder groups. For example:

    • At the initial stage of development of an outcome, the technologist may be seeking feedback on the broad attributes of the product. Talking over ideas could be an appropriate form of modelling.
    • When seeking evidence on proportion, form and shape of a possible outcome, a three-dimensional model (rather than a flat drawing) should make it easier for a group of stakeholders to give valid and reliable feedback.
    • For some stakeholder groups, it may be appropriate to model components of the outcome - so, for example, they can be checked for technical feasibility and stakeholder expectations. 

    Additional information  is available here under  key ideas for technological modelling

  • Question

    What is meant by "basic concepts" in the Achievement standard 91059: "Demonstrate understanding of basic concepts used to make products from resistant materials"


    It is clear from the explanatory notes that the focus of the standard is on understanding materials and working techniques, and on how and why different materials and techniques are used in different situations.

    As far as materials go, the “basic concept” is that different materials have different characteristics that make them suitable in some situations but not others. The standard (EN 5) says these characteristics may include but are not limited to profile, hardness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, and grain.

    With respect to techniques, the “basic concept” is that different techniques are used for different purposes and when working with different resistant materials. The standard (EN 3) says that purposes include measuring or marking out; sizing, shaping or forming; joining or assembly; and finishing, detailing, or tuning.

    The standard (EN 2) makes it clear that “basic concepts” extends to safe practice. This means that students need to be aware of the hazards associated with particular materials and techniques, and how these can be mitigated.

    For assessment against this AS, students should draw on understandings gained from their own practice, but the expectation is that they will also draw on understandings gained from exploring a wide variety of products. Teachers need to give students opportunities to do this and to model the sorts of reflective and inquiry questions students should be asking.

    This AS is derived from the Technological Knowledge strand of the curriculum and is designed to encourage students to extend and deepen their understanding of materials and safe working techniques, and to apply these understandings to their technological decision making.

  • Question

    I am not able to find the "Strategies for engaging students". I have a hard copy of the tech knowledge strand and the nature of technology strand Levels 1 to 4, but nothing for the tech practice? I think they were developed by Cliff Harwood. The copies have images added by Cheryl Pym (2011). It says they were adapted for 'teaching it better' cluster meetings. I have searched TKI and Technology Online. I do not remember where I got these copies from. Please can you help?


    The strategies for engaging students have been removed from the site as there is now more recent information available.The indicators of progression provide a teacher guidance section which makes suggestions about teaching each of the components.The curriculum area of the site has been refreshed and information on each component can be accessed from the diagram here: Technology in the NZC. Each of the components is a clickable link through to videos and further information. The explanatory papers for each component have been refreshed and included as Key ideas.  There is also further information available at the Senior level in the Senior Secondary Teaching and learning guidelines here: Technology SSTLG

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